FCentre for Glaciology Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences University of Wales Aberystwyth Ceredigion SY23 3DB UK

Switzerland (e.g. Hubbard et al., 1995; Gordon et al., 1998; Mair et al., 2004).

Many of the more significant developments of down-borehole instrumentation have been published as individual papers (many in the Instruments and Methods section of the Journal of Glaciology). However, routine procedures and numerous relatively minor, but nonetheless significant, improvements to equipment remain unreported. This chapter aims at giving an overview of some of the equipment, procedures and instrumentation as used in the borehole-based investigations at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Trapridge Glacier and Storglaciaren. Such an overview necessarily describes an imperfect snapshot of continually changing technology: new and improved versions of this equipment are being developed and may already be in use elsewhere. Indeed, it is hoped that one consequence of this chapter will be to stimulate such developments further, perhaps particularly by appealing to skilled workers in other fields who may be unaware of the glaciological problems and technology involved.

76.2 Investigations of the glacier substrate

The borehole-based studies undertaken at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Trapridge Glacier and Storglaciaren have involved investigations of glacier hydrology, glacier hydrochemistry and glacier motion. As part of these investigations, we have drilled and instrumented numerous boreholes to study the glacier substrate. Specifically, the sediments accessible at the base of these boreholes have been recovered directly by subglacial sediment sampler, and investigated indirectly by penetrometer, ploughmeter, dragometer, bed tilt cells and drag spools.

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