The bed of the LIS, and other former ice sheets, represent a rosetta stone for deciphering past changes in ice-sheet dynamics, including changes in thermal conditions, rates of erosion, and transport vectors. New tools and new approaches have characterized our efforts to learn more about the LIS during the late Cenozoic Ice Age. Observations and fieldwork can be used to provide tests of new and sophisticated three-dimensional ice sheet models (Marshall & Clark, 2002; Marshall et al., 2002; Hildes et al., 2004) and this interaction will surely increase our understanding of the tantalizing fragments of evidence that ice sheets leave, hence allowing researchers to better understand bed conditions at the base of large ice sheets.

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