S

Salinity, 20

Salmon survival rate, 335 Sample mean, 68-70, 72, 100 Sample median, 72, 99-100 Sample standard deviation denominator n, 99, 287, 296 denominator n — 1, 69-71, 96, 99 Savannah grass proportion, 164 Sawtooth shape, 10, 219-220 Scandinavia, 390

333-334, 361, 366, 371 Scientific papers on global warming, annual output, 376 Sea ice extent, 220, 331 Sea level, 275 Seasalt, 7, 11-12, 159, 331 Seasonality, 4, 22, 27, 163, 213, 273-274,

277, 279, 335, 365 Sedimentation rate, 9, 135, 146-147, 149,

154-155, 173, 370-372 Seismology, 44, 220, 245 Sensitivity study, 154, 157-158, 238,

241-242, 257, 372 Shape parameter

GEV/GP distribution, 233-235, 237-242,

245, 247-248, 270-275, 279-280 lognormal distribution, 109, 323 Siberia, 7, 17, 20, 48-51 Significance test, see Hypothesis test Simplex search, 274, 280 Simulation-extrapolation algorithm, 375 Singular Spectrum Analysis, 32, 226, 384 Smoothing, see Regression, nonparametric regression Sodium content, 7, 11-12, 18-20, 146,

148-149, 231, 331 Software

DEC, 226

EViews, 110 Excel, 110, 176

281-282, 338, 380 GAUSS, 110 Genstat, 281 Java, 175 Linux, 226, 281 Macintosh, 176, 226 Matlab, 110, 175-176, 226-227, 281 Online tool, 176 Ox, 64

Resampling Stats, 110 SAS, 110 SGI, 226

S-Plus/R, 26, 64, 110, 175, 281-282 Stata, 110, 282, 380 Sun, 226 Unix, 176, 281 Windows, 63, 176, 226, 281 Soil erosion, 15, 279

Solar activity, 7, 13-14, 16, 20, 27, 30, 61, 195, 205-206, 213-214, 220, 222-223, 277, 285, 332-333, 336, 360, 386 Solar cycle length, 332-334 Solar insolation, 9, 14, 29, 165, 173, 220 South America, 328

Southern hemisphere, 11, 60, 164, 167, 220,

336, 373, 385 Spacing even, 16-17, 21-22, 24-25, 32-44, 47, 56-59, 61, 63-64, 75, 78, 81, 83-84, 97, 103-104, 116-117, 120-129, 132,

152, 162, 177, 179-180, 183-184, 197-199, 202, 204-205, 207-208, 215-217, 221-225, 232, 242, 290-291, 316-317, 329-330, 349, 351-354, 356-358, 360, 367, 384, 387, 394

uneven, 4, 9-12, 14, 21-23, 26, 32-33, 35, 37-39, 41, 43-44, 57-59, 63, 66, 74-76, 78, 80-81, 83, 85, 89-91, 97-98, 101-105, 113, 117, 120-123, 129, 131-132, 137-140, 145, 147-149,

153, 155, 160, 165, 171, 177, 194, 196-199, 201-204, 206, 208-212, 214, 216, 218-225, 227, 232, 266, 269, 291, 293, 300, 303-308, 316-320, 324-325, 330, 333-334, 349, 365, 369, 383-384, 392, 394

jittered, 208-209, 221 missing observations, 13, 15, 41-42, 48, 59, 155, 161, 194, 204, 218, 226, 266, 277, 311, 330 Spectral density AR(1) process, 180 AR(2) process, 180-181 Blackman-Tukey estimation, 224

Burg's algorithm, 224 line spectrum, 181-183, 217 Lomb-Scargle estimation, 177, 196-206, 209-212, 214, 216, 219-224, 226-227 maximum entropy estimation, 224, 226 mixed spectrum, 181-182, 202, 216-217 multisegmenting procedure, 194, 202, 220 multitaper estimation, 177, 188-194, 196, 202, 207, 209, 215-216, 218, 220, 224, 226-227 nonstationarity, 217 parametric estimation, 219 wavelet estimation, 32, 217-219, 223 windowed estimation, 218-219, 226 one-sided non-normalized, definition, 178-179

one-sided normalized, definition, 179 periodogram estimation, 183-188, 192,

194, 196, 204, 215-217, 223, 329, 335 sidelobes, 199

WOSA procedure, 186-189, 199-201, 204, 206, 212, 219 Speleothem, 6-7, 14, 17, 20-21, 27-28, 30, 129-130, 133-134, 136, 164, 172, 186, 215, 220-221, 330, 332, 363, 383-384 stalagmite Q5, 7, 14, 18-20, 23, 130, 165,

205-206, 209, 212-215, 222 stalagmite S3, 22 Speleothem, annual layer thickness, 22-23 Standard deviation operator, 66 Standard error operator, 66 State estimation, see Data assimilation Statistical test, see Hypothesis test Stochastic volatility process, 44 Stomata density, leaves, 29 Stratosphere, 16, 62, 159, 164, 214 Streamflow, see Runoff Strontium isotopic composition, 335 Structural change, see Change-point Sulfate content, 7, 11, 16, 18-20, 23,

159-160, 171, 231, 257-258, 266-268, 278, 360 Sun, 3, 30, 61

222-223, 332 Superposed epoch analysis, 169 Superresolution, 217 Surge, 275

Switzerland, 82, 171, 275, 277

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