Aresta, M. (ed.), 1987: Carbon dioxide as a source of carbon; biochemical and chemical use. Kluwer, the Hague.
Audus, H. and H. Oonk, 1997: An assessment procedure for chemical utilisation schemes intended to reduce CO2 emission to atmosphere. Energy Conversion and Management, 38(suppl. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, 1996), pp S409-414.
Audus, H. and P. Freund, 1997: The costs and benefits of mitigation: a full fuel cycle examination of technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Conversion and Management, 38, Suppl., pp S595-600.
Audus, H., O. Kaarstad, and M. Kowal, 1996: Decarbonisation of fossil fuels: Hydrogen as an energy carrier. Proceedings of the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Association of Hydrogen Energy, published by Schon and Wetzel, Frankfurt, Germany.
Azar, C., K. Lindgren, and B.A. Andersson, 2003: Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints - cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector. Energy Policy, 31, pp. 961-976.
Baer, P., 2003: An issue of scenarios: carbon sequestration as an investment and the distribution of risk. An editorial comment. Climate Change, 59, 283-291.
Baklid, A., R. Korb0l, and G. Owren, 1996: Sleipner Vest CO2 disposal: CO2 injection into a shallow underground aquifer. Paper presented at the 1996 SPE Annual Technical Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA. SPE paper 36600, 1-9.
Benemann, J.R., 1993: Utilization of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning power plant with biological systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 34(9-11) pp. 999-1004.
Berk, M.M., J.G. van Minnen, B. Metz, and W. Moomaw, 2001: Keeping Our Options Open, Climate Options for the Long Term (COOL) - Global Dialogue synthesis report, RIVM, NOP rapport nr. 410 200 118.
Blunt, M., F.J. Fayers, and F.M. Orr Jr. 1993: Carbon Dioxide in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Energy Conversion and Management, 34(9-11) pp. 1197-1204.
BP, 2003: BP Statistical Review of World Energy. London.
Bulter, F.A.G den and M.W. Hofkes, 2004: Technological Transition: a neo-classical economics viewpoint. In Sciences for Industrial Transformation: views from different disciplines. X. Olsthoorn and A.Wieczoreck (eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Cole, K.H., G.R. Stegen, D. Spencer, 1993: Energy Conversion and Management, 34 (9-11), pp, 991-998.
Deshun, L., Y.G. Chen, O. Lihui, 1998: Waste CO2 capture and utilization for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and underground storage - a case study in Jilin Oil field, China. In Greenhouse Gas Mitigation - Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly, Riemer P.W.F., A.Y. Smith, K.V. Thambimuthu, (eds). Pergamon, Oxford.
Dooley, J.J. and M.A. Wise, 2003: Retention of CO2 in Geologic Sequestration Formations: Desirable Levels, Economic Considerations, and the Implications for Sequestration R&D. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. J. Gale and Y. Kaya (eds). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam pp. 273-278.
Dunsmore, H.E., 1992: A geological perspective on global warming and the possibility of carbon dioxide removal as calcium carbonate mineral. Energy Conversion and Management, 33(5-8), pp. 565-572.
Edmonds, J.A., P. Freund, J.J. Dooley, 2001: The role of carbon management technologies in addressing atmospheric stabilization of greenhouse gases. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, D. Williams, B. Durie, P. McMullan, C. Paulson, A. Smith (eds). CSIRO, Australia, pp. 46-51.
Fletcher Multilaterals, The texts of UNCLOS, the London
Convention, OSPAR convention and other treaties can be seen at http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals.html.
Freund, P. and J.E. Davison, 2002: General overview of costs, IPCC Workshop, Regina.
Freund, P., 2001: Progress in understanding the potential role of CO2 storage. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-5), D.J. Williams, R.A. Durie, P. McMullan, C.A.J. Paulson, and A.Y. Smith (eds). CSIRO, 13-16 August 2000, Cairns, Australia, pp. 272-278.
Gale, J., N.P. Christensen, A. Cutler, and T.A. Torp, 2001:
Demonstrating the Potential for Geological Storage of CO2: The Sleipner and GESTCO Projects, Environmental Geosciences, 8(3), pp.160-165.
Gunter, W.D., T. Gentzis, B.A. Rottengusser, R.J.H. Richardson, 1997: Deep coalbed methane in Alberta, Canada: a fuel resource with the potential of zero greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Conversion and Management, 38, Suppl., pp. S217-222.
Ha-Duong, M. and D.W. Keith, 2003: Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 5, pp.181-189.
Haugan, P.M. and F. Joos, 2004: Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L18202.
Hawkins, D.G., 2003: Passing gas: policy implications for geologic carbon storage sites. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, J. Gale and Y Kaya (eds), Elsevier Science, Amsterdam pp. 249-254.
Hendriks, C.A., K. Blok, and W.C. Turkenburg, 1989: The recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants. Proceedings of the Symposium on Climate and Energy, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Herzog, H.J., K. Caldeira, and J. Reilly, 2003: An issue of permanence: assessing the effectiveness of temporary carbon storage. Climatic Change, 59, pp. 293-310.
Holloway, S., J.P. Heederik, L.G.H. van der Meer, I. Czernichowski-Lauriol, R. Harrison, E. Lindeberg, I.R. Summerfield, C. Rochelle, T. Schwarzkopf, O. Kaarstad, and B. Berger, 1996: The Underground Disposal of Carbon Dioxide, Final Report of JOULE II Project No. CT92-0031, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK.
Horn, F.L. and M. Steinberg, 1982: Control of carbon dioxide emissions from a power plant (and use in enhanced oil recovery). Fuel, 61, May 1982.
IEA GHG, 2000a, Leading options for the capture of CO2 emissions at power stations, Report Ph3/14. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA GHG, 2000b: The potential of wind energy to reduce CO2 emissions. Report Ph3/24. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA GHG, 2001: Putting Carbon back in the Ground. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA GHG, 2002: Opportunities for early application of CO2
sequestration technology. Report Ph4/10. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA GHG, 2004a: Implications of the Clean Development
Mechanism for use of CO2 Capture and Storage, Report Ph4/36. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA GHG, 2004b: Overview of Long-term Framework for CO2
Capture and Storage. Report Ph4/35. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA GHG, 2004c: Overview of Monitoring Requirements for Geological Storage Projects. Report Ph4/29. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Cheltenham, UK.
IEA, 2003: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, 1971-2001, OECD/IEA, Paris.
IEA, 2004: Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 2001-2002. OECD/IEA, Paris.
IPCC, 1996a: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to The Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss, (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 1996b: Technologies, Policies, and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change - IPCC Technical Paper I.
IPCC, 2000a: Special Report on Emission Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 2000b: Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. IPCC Special Report, R.T. Watson, I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo, and D.J. Dokken (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 2000c: Summary for Policymakers. Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 2001a: Climate Change 2001 - Mitigation. The Third
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. Davidson, R. Swart, and J. Pan (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. IPCC, 2001b: Climate Change 2001. The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. IPCC, 2001c: Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis.
Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C.A. Johnson, (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. IPCC, 2001d: Costing Methodologies. A. Markandya, K. Halsnaes, A. Lanza, Y. Matsuoka, S. Maya, J. Pan, J. Shogren, R Seroa de Motta, and T. Zhang, In: Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. Davidson, R. Swart, and J. Pan (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. IPCC, 2001e: Climate Change 2001. Synthesis Report. A contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. R.T. Watson and the Core Writing Team (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK IPCC, 2002: Workshop on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.
Proceedings published by ECN, the Netherlands. ISO, 1997: International Standard ISO 14040: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva, Switzerland. Johansson, T.B., H. Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, R. Williams, 1993:
Renewable Fuels and Electricity for a Growing World Economy: Defining and Achieving the Potential, in Renewable Energy
- Sources for Fuels and Electricity, T.B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, R. Williams (eds.). Island Press.
Kaya, Y., 1995: The role of CO2 removal and disposal. Energy
Conversion and Management, 36(6-9) pp. 375-380. Kheshgi, H.S., 2003: Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilisation. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, J. Gale, and Y. Kaya (eds), Elsevier Science Ltd, Amsterdam, pp. 811-816.
Kohl, A. and R. Nielsen, 1997: Gas Purification, Gulf Publishing
Company, Houston, USA. Koide, H., Y. Tazaki, Y. Noguchi, S. Nakayama, M. Iijima, K. Ito, Y. Shindo, 1992: Subterranean containment and long-term storage of carbon dioxide in unused aquifers and in depleted natural gas reservoirs. Energy Conversion and Management. 33(5-8), pp. 619-626.
Korbol, R. and A. Kaddour, 1995: Sleipner Vest CO2 disposal
- injection of removed CO2 into the Utsira formation. Energy Conversion and Management, 36(3-9), pp. 509-512.
Krupnick, A.J., D. Buttraw, A. Markandya, 2000: The Ancillary Benefits and Costs of Climate Change Mitigation: A Conceptual Framework. Paper presented to the Expert Workshop on Assessing the Ancillary Benefits and Costs of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies, 27-29 March 2000, Washington D.C.
Marchetti, C. and N. Nakicenovic, 1979: The Dynamics of Energy Systems and the Logistic Substitution Model. RR-79-13. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
Marchetti, C., 1977: On Geo-engineering and the CO2 problem. Climate Change, 1, pp. 59-68.
Marland, G., A. Brenkert, O. Jos, 1999: CO2 from fossil fuel burning: a comparison of ORNL and EDGAR estimates of national emissions. Environmental Science & Policy, 2, pp. 265-273.
McDonald, A. and L. Schrattenholzer, 2001: Learning rates for energy technologies. Energy Policy 29, pp. 255-261.
Mollersten, K., J. Yan, and J.R. Moreira, 2003: Promising market niches for biomass energy with CO2 removal and disposal -Opportunities for energy supply with negative CO2 emissions,
Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, pp. 273-285.
Moomaw, W., K. Ramakrishna, K. Gallagher, and T. Fried, 1999: The Kyoto Protocol: A Blueprint for Sustainability. Journal of Environment and Development, 8, pp. 82-90.
Munasinghe, M. and R. Swart, 2005: Primer on Climate Change and Sustainable Development - Facts, Policy Analysis, and Application, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Nelson, R.R. and S. Winter, 1982: An Evolutionary Theory of
Economic Change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Pacala, S.W., 2003: Global Constraints on Reservoir Leakage.
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. J. Gale and Y. Kaya (eds). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam pp. 267-272.
Seifritz, W., 1990: CO2 disposal by means of silicates. Nature, 345, pp. 486.
Seifritz, W., 1992: The terrestrial storage of CO2-ice as a means to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Hydrogen Energy Progress IX (C.D.J. Pottier and T.N. Veziroglu (eds), pp. 59-68.
Siddique, Q., 1990: Separation of Gases. Proceedings of 5th Priestley Conference, Roy. Soc. Chem., London, pp. 329.
Skovholt, O., 1993: CO2 transportation systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 34, 9-11, pp.1095-1103.
Sorey, M.L., C.D. Farrar, W.C. Evans, D.P. Hill, R.A. Bailey, J.W. Hendley, P.H. Stauffer, 1996: Invisible CO2 Gas Killing Trees at Mammoth Mountain, California. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 172-96.
Steinberg, M. 1996: The Carnol process for CO2 mitigation from power plants and the transportation sector. Energy Conversion and Management, 37(6-8) pp 843-848.
Stevens, S.H. and J. Gale, 2000: Geologic CO2 sequestration. Oil and Gas Journal, May 15 th, 40-44.
Turkenburg, W.C., 1997: Sustainable development, climate change and carbon dioxide removal. Energy Conversion and Management, 38, S3-S12.
Uchida, T., T. Hondo, S. Mae, J. Kawabata, 1995: Physical data of CO2 hydrate. In Direct Ocean Disposal of Carbon Dioxide. N. Handa and T. Ohsumi (eds), Terrapub, Tokyo pp. 45-61.
UNFCCC, 1992: United Nations, New York.
UNFCCC, 2001: Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Seventh Session, held in Marrakech, from 29 October to 10 November 2001, Addendum. FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1.
Unruh, G., 2000: Understanding Carbon Lock-in. Energy Policy, 28(12) pp. 817-830.
Wigley, T.M.L., R. Richels, J.A. Edmonds, 1996: Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nature, 379, pp. 240-243.
World Energy Assessment, 2004: Overview: 2004 Update. J. Goldemberg and T.B. Johansson (eds), United Nations Development Programme, New York.
Yamaji, K., 1997: A study of the role of end-of-pipe technologies in reducing CO2 emissions. Waste Management, 17(5-6) pp. 295-302. 2
Was this article helpful?
Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.