Whilst it is possible to determine emission source data for the year 2000 (CO2 concentration and point source geographical location) with a reasonable degree of accuracy for most industrial sectors, it is more difficult to predict the future location of emission point sources. Whilst all projections indicate there will be an increase in CO2 emissions, determining the actual locations for new plants currently remains a subjective business.

A detailed description of the storage capacity for the world's sedimentary basins is required. Although capacity estimates have been made, they do not yet constitute a full resource assessment. Such information is essential to establish a better picture of the existing opportunities for storing the CO2 generated at large point sources. At present, only a simplistic assessment is possible based on the limited data about the storage capacity currently available in sedimentary basins.

An analysis of the storage potential in the ocean for emissions from large point sources was not possible because detailed mapping indicating the relationship between storage locations in the oceans and point source emissions has not yet been carefully assessed.

This chapter highlights the fact that fossil fuel-based hydrogen production from large centralized plants will potentially result in the generation of more high-concentration emission sources. However, it is not currently possible to predict with any accuracy the number of these point sources in the future, or when they will be established, because of market development uncertainties surrounding hydrogen as an energy carrier. For example, before high-concentration CO2 sources associated with hydrogen production for energy can

Audus, H. and P. Freund, 2004: Climate change mitigation by biomass gasification combined with CO2 capture and storage. Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. E.S. Rubin, D.W. Keith, and C.F. Gilboy (eds.), Vol.

1 pp. 187-200: Peer-Reviewed Papers and Plenary Presentations, Pergamon, 2005

Bechtel Corporation, Global Energy Inc., and Nexant Inc., 2003: Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization, Task

2 Topical Report: Coke/Coal Gasification with Liquids Coproduction, prepared for the National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-

AC26-99FT40342, September. Bradshaw, J. and T. Dance, 2004: Mapping geological storage prospectivity of CO2 for the world's sedimentary basins and regional source to sink matching. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies, Vol. 1; peer reviewed Papers and Plenary Presentations. pp. 583-592. Eds. E.S. Rubin, D.W. Keith and C.F. Gilboy, Pergamon, 2005 Bradshaw, J., B.E. Bradshaw, G. Allinson, A.J. Rigg, V. Nguyen, and L. Spencer, 2002: The Potential for Geological Sequestration of CO2 in Australia: Preliminary findings and implications to new gas field development. APPEA Journal, 42(1), 25-46. Burns, L., J. McCormick, and C. Borroni-Bird, 2002: Vehicle of change. Scientific American, 287(4), 64-73. Campbell, P.E., J.T. McMullan, and B.C. Williams, 2000: Concept for a competitive coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. Fuel, 79(9), 1031-1040.

Celik, F., E.D. Larson, and R.H. Williams, 2005: Transportation Fuel from Coal with Low CO2 Emissions. Wilson, M., T. Morris, J. Gale and K. Thambimuthu (eds.), Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. Volume II: Papers, Posters and Panel Discussion, pp. 1053-1058, Pergamon, 2005

Chauvel, A. and G. Lefebvre, 1989: Petrochemical Processes, Technical and Economic Characteristics, 1 Synthesis-Gas Derivatives and Major Hydrocarbons, Éditions Technip, Paris, 2001.

Chiesa, P, G. Lozza, and L. Mazzocchi, 2003: Using hydrogen as gas turbine fuel, Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2003: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Atlanta, GA, 16-19 June.

Christensen, N.P, 2001: The GESTCO Project: Assessing European potential for geological storage and CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-5), 12-16 August 2000, Cairns, Australia. pp. 260-265.

Christensen, T.S. and I.I. Primdahl, 1994: Improve synthesis gas production using auto thermal reforming. Hydrocarbon Processing, 39-46, March, 1994.

Dornburg, V. and A. Faaij, 2001: Efficiency and economy of wood-fired biomass energy systems in relation to scale regarding heat and power generation using combustion and gasification technologies, Biomass and Biomass energy, 21 (2): 91-108.

Foster Wheeler, 1998: Solving the heavy fuel oil problem with IGCC technology. Heat Engineering, 62(2), 24-28.

Gale, J., 2002: Overview of CO2 emissions sources, potential, transport and geographical distribution of storage possibilities. Proceedings of the workshop on CO2 dioxide capture and storage, Regina, Canada, 18-21 November 2002, pp. 15-29.

Garg, A., M. Kapshe, P.R. Shukla, and D.Ghosh, 2002: Large Point Source (LPS) emissions for India: Regional and sectoral analysis. Atmospheric Environment, 36, pp. 213-224.

Gielen, D.J. and Y. Moriguchi, 2003: Technological potentials for CO2 emission reduction in the global iron and steel industry. International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, 1(3), 229-249.

Greene, N., 2004: Growing energy: how biofuels can help end America's growing oil dependence, NCEP Technical Appendix: Expanding Energy Supply, in The National Commission on Energy Policy, Ending the Energy Stalemate: A Bipartisan Strategy to Meet America's Energy Challenges, Washington, DC.

Hamelinck, C.N. and A. Faaij, 2002: Future prospects for production of methanol and hydrogen from biomass, Journal of Power Sources, 111 (1): 1-22.

Hibino, G., Y. Matsuoka, and M. Kainuma, 2003: AIM/Common Database: A Tool for AIM Family Linkage. In: M. Kainuma, Y. Matsuoka, and T. Morita, (eds.), Climate Policy Assessment: Asia-Pacific Integrated Modelling. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 233-244.

IEA, 2002: World Energy Outlook - 2002. International Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/IEA), Paris, France.

IEA GHG, 1999: The Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Cement Industry, PH3/7, May, 112 pp.

IEA GHG, 2000: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Major Industrial Sources - IV, the Aluminium Industry, PH3/23, April, 80 pp.

IEA GHG, 2000a: Capture of CO2 using water scrubbing, IEA Report Number PH3/26, July, 150 pp.

IEA GHG, 2000b: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Major Industrial Sources - III, Iron and Steel Production, PH3/30, September, 130 pp.

IEA GHG, 2002a: Building the Cost Curves for CO2 Storage, Part 1: Sources of CO2, PH4/9, July, 48 pp.

IEA GHG, 2002b: Opportunities for Early Application of CO2 Sequestration Technology, Ph4/10, September, 91 pp.

IPCC, 2000: Emissions Scenarios, a Special Report of IPCC Working Party III, Summary for Policy Makers, 20 pp.

IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 752 pp, ISBN: 0521015022.

Kheshgi, H.S. and R.C. Prince, 2005: Sequestration of fermentation CO2 from ethanol production. Energy, 30, 1865-1871.

Larson, E.D., and T. Ren, 2003: Synthetic fuels production by indirect coal liquefaction, Energy for Sustainable Development, VII (4), 79-102.

Lloyd, A.C. 1999: The Power Plant in your Basement. Scientific American, 280(7), 80-86.

Maddox, R.N. and D.J. Morgan, 1998: Gas Conditioning and Gas Treating, Volume 4: Gas treating and liquid sweetening, Campbell Petroleum Series, OK, USA, 498 pp.

Marland, G., A. Brenkert, and J. Oliver, 1999: CO2 from fossil fuel burning: a comparison of ORNL and EDGAR estimates of national emissions. Environmental Science & Policy, 2, pp. 265-273.

Marrison, C. and E. Larson, 1995: Cost vs scale for advanced plantation-based biomass energy systems in the USA and Brazil. Proceedings of the Second Biomass Conference of the America, NREL, Golden, Colorado, pp. 1272-1290.

Mollersten, K., J. Yan, and J.R. Moreira, 2003: Potential markets niches for biomass supply with CO2 capture and storage - Opportunities for energy supply with negative CO2 emissions, Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, pp 273-285.

Morita, T., and H.-C. Lee, 1998: Appendix to Emissions Scenarios Database and Review of Scenarios. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 3(2-4), 121-131.

NETL-DOE, 2002: Worldwide gasification database which can be viewed at

NRC (Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use of the National Research Council), 2004: The Hydrogen Economy - Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC,

Ogden, J. and R. Williams, 1989: Solar Hydrogen, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

Ogden, J., R. Williams, and E. Larson, 2004: Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels, Energy Policy, 32, 7-27.

Owen and Gordon, N. Owen and R. Gordon, 2002: "CO2 to Hydrogen" Roadmaps for Passenger Cars, a study for the Department for Transport and the Department of Trade and Industry carried out by Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd., West Sussex, UK, November.

Simbeck, D.R., 2003: CO2 Capture and Storage, the Essential Bridge to the Hydrogen Economy, Elsevier Science Oxford, UK, July.

Simbeck, D.R., 2004: CO2 Capture and Storage, the Essential Bridge to the Hydrogen Economy, Energy, 29: 1633-1641.

Simmonds, S., P Horst, M.B. Wilkinson, C. Watt and C.A. Roberts, 2003: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, J. Gale, Y. Kaya (eds), 14 October 2002, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 39-44.

Sperling, D. and J.S. Cannon (eds.), 2004: The Hydrogen Energy Transition, Elsevier, St. Louis.

Stevens, S.H. and J. Gale, 2000: Geologic CO2 Sequestration, Oil and Gas Journal, May 15th, 40-44.

TFEST (Task Force on Energy Strategies and Technologies), 2003: Transforming coal for sustainability: a strategy for China, Energy for Sustainable Development, vil (4): 21-30.

toth, F.L and H-H. Rogner, 2006: Carbon Dioxide Capture: An Assessment of Plausible Ranges, Accepted for publication International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 25, forthcoming.

van Bergen, F., J. Gale, K.J. Damen, and A.F.B. Wildenborg, 2004: Worldwide selection of early opportunities for CO2-EOR and CO2-ECBM, Energy, 29 (9-10): 1611-1621. Williams, R.H. (Convening Lead Author) et al., 2000: Advanced energy supply technologies. In World Energy Assessment: Energy the Challenge of Sustainability, (a study sponsored jointly by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs, and the World Energy Council), published by the Bureau for Development Policy, United Nations Development Programme, New York. Bureau for Development Policy, United Nations Development Program, New York, pp. 273-329. Williams, R.H., 1998: Fuel decarbonisation for fuel cell applications and sequestration of the separated CO2, in Eco-Restructuring: Implications for Sustainable Development, R.W. Ayres (ed.), United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 180-222. Williams, R.H., 2003: Decarbonised fossil energy carriers and their energy technological competitors, pp. 119-135, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Carbon Capture and Storage of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, published by ECN (Energy Research Center of The Netherlands), 18-21 November, 178 pp.

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment