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Introduction

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) can take a variety of forms. This chapter discusses how the main CCS systems as well as mineral carbonation and industrial uses of CO2, described in the previous chapters could be incorporated into national greenhouse gas inventories and accounting schemes. However, inventory or accounting issues specific to enhanced oil recovery or enhanced coal bed methane are not addressed here.

The inclusion of CCS systems in national greenhouse gas inventories is discussed in Section 9.2 (Greenhouse gas inventories). The section gives an overview of the existing framework, the main concepts and methodologies used in preparing and reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals with the aim of identifying inventory categories for reporting CCS systems. In addition, areas are identified where existing methodologies could be used to include these systems in the inventories, and areas where new methodologies (including emission/removal factors and uncertainty estimates) would need to be developed. Treatment of CCS in corporate or company reporting is beyond the scope of the chapter.

Issues related to accounting2 under the Kyoto Protocol; or under other similar accounting schemes that would limit emissions, provide credits for emission reductions, or encourage emissions trading; are addressed in Section 9.3 (Accounting issues). The section addresses issues that could warrant special rules and modalities in accounting schemes because of specific features of CCS systems, such as permanence of CO2 storage and liability issues related to transportation and storage in international territories and across national borders. Specific consideration is also given to CCS systems in relation to the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (Emission Trading, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism).

1 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 1997) - abbreviated as IPCC Guidelines in this chapter; IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 2000) - abbreviated as GPG2000; and IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry ( IPCC 2003) - abbreviated as GPG-LULUCF.

2 'Accounting' refers to the rules for comparing emissions and removals as reported with commitments. In this context, 'estimation' is the process of calculating greenhouse gas emissions and removals, and 'reporting' is the process of providing the estimates to the UNFCCC (IPCC 2003).

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