power station produces about 7 Mt CO2 yr-1, and so one Cortez pipeline could handle the emissions of three of those stations.

The Cortez Pipeline passes through two built-up areas, Placitas, New Mexico (30 km north of Albuquerque, New Mexico) and Edgewood/Moriarty, New Mexico (40 km east of Albuquerque). The line is buried at least 1 m deep and is marked within its right of way. Near houses and built-up areas it is marked more frequently to ensure the residents are aware of the pipeline locations. The entire pipeline is patrolled by air every two weeks, and in built-up areas is frequently patrolled by employees in company vehicles. The public education programme includes the mailing of a brochure describing CO2, signs of a leak and where to report a suspected leak, together with information about the operator and the "one-call" centre. Sheep Mountain Pipeline

BP Oil constructed this 610 mm (24-inch) 772 km line capable of carrying 9.2 MtCO2 yr-1 from another naturally occurring source in southeast Colorado. It connects to the Bravo Dome line and into the other major carriers at Denver City and now is operated by Kinder Morgan.

Figure 4.1 CO2 pipelines in North America. (Courtesy of Oil and Gas Journal). Weyburn Pipeline

This 330 km, (305-356 mm diameter) system carries more than 5000 tonne day-1 (1.8 Mt yr-1) of CO2 from the Great Plains Synfuels Plant near Beulah, North Dakota to the Weyburn EOR project in Saskatchewan. The composition of the gas carried by the pipeline is typically CO2 96%, H2S 0.9%, CH4 0.7%, C2+ hydrocarbons 2.3%, CO 0.1%, N2 less than 300 ppm, O2 less than 50 ppm and H2O less than 20 ppm (UK Department of Trade and Industry, 2002). The delivery pressure at Weyburn is 15.2 MPa. There are no intermediate compressor stations. The amount allocated to build the pipeline was 110 US $ million (0.33 x 106 US$ km-1) in 1997.

• Trenching and backfilling: onshore lines are usually buried to depth of 1 m. Offshore lines are almost always buried in shallow water. In deeper water pipelines narrower than 400 mm are trenched and sometimes buried to protect them against damage by fishing gear.

• CO2 pipelines may be more subject to longitudinal running fracture than hydrocarbon gas pipelines. Fracture arresters are installed at intervals of about 500 m.

West (1974) describes the design of the SACROC CO2 pipeline (Section above). The transportation options examined were:

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