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Status and outlook

We have reviewed processes - current and potential - that may be used to separate CO2 in the course of producing another product. One of these processes, natural gas sweetening, is already being used in two industrial plants to capture and store about 2 MtCO2 yr-1 for the purpose of climate change mitigation. In the case of ammonia production, pure CO2 is already being separated. Over 7 MtCO2 yr-1 captured from both natural gas sweetening and ammonia plants is currently being used in enhanced oil recovery with some storage (see also Chapter 5) of the injected CO2 in these commercial EOR projects. Several potential processes for CO2 capture in steel and cement production exist, but none have yet been applied. Although the total amount of CO2 that may be captured from these industrial processes is insignificant in terms of the scale of the climate change challenge, significance may arise in that their use could serve as early examples of solutions that can be applied on larger scale elsewhere.

CO2 is a byproduct of ammonia (NHj) production (Leites et al., 2003); Two main groups of processes are used:

• Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons (natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha)

• Partial oxidation or gasification of heavy hydrocarbons (coal, heavy fuel oil, vacuum residue).

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