6.9.4 Cost of carbonate neutralization approach


Large-scale deployment of carbonate neutralization would require a substantial infrastructure to mine, transport, crush, and dissolve these minerals, as well as substantial pumping of seawater, presenting advantages for coastal power plants near carbonate mineral sources.

There are many trade-offs to be analyzed in the design of an economically optimal carbonate-neutralization reactor along the lines of that described by Rau and Caldeira (1999). Factors to be considered in reactor design include water flow rate, gas flow rate, particle size, pressure, temperature, hydrodynamic conditions, purity of reactants, gas-water contact area, etc. Consideration of these factors has led to preliminary cost estimates for this concept, including capture, transport, and energy penalties, of 10 to 110 US$/tCO2 net stored (Rau and Caldeira, 1999).

6.9.5 Cost of monitoring and verification

The cost of a monitoring and verification program could involve deploying and maintaining a large array of sensors in the ocean. Technology exists to conduct such monitoring, but a significant fraction of the instrument development and production is limited to research level activities. No estimate of costs for near-field monitoring for ocean storage have been published, but the costs of limited near-field monitoring would be small compared to the costs of ocean storage in cases of the scale considered in 6.9.2 and 6.9.3. Far field monitoring can benefit from international research programs that are developing global monitoring networks.

6.10 Gaps in knowledge

The science and technology of ocean carbon storage could move forward by addressing the following major gaps:

- Biology and ecology: Studies of the response of biological systems in the deep sea to added CO2, including studies that are longer in duration and larger in scale than yet performed.

- Research facilities: Research facilities where ocean storage concepts (e.g., release of CO2 from a fixed pipe or ship, or carbonate-neutralization approaches) can be applied and their effectiveness and impacts assessed in situ at small-scale on a continuing basis for the purposes of both scientific research and technology development.

- Engineering: Investigation and development of technology for working in the deep sea, and the development of pipes, nozzles, diffusers, etc., which can be deployed in the deep sea with assured flow and be operated and maintained cost-effectively.

- Monitoring: Development of techniques and sensors to detect CO2 plumes and their biological and geochemical consequences.

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