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Figure 6.20 Locations of ocean water at least 1 km and 3 km deep. Distance over land to water that is at least 3 km deep (Caldeira and Wickett, 2005). In general, land areas with the lightest colours would be the most-cost effective land-based settings for a CO2-injection operation. However, each potential site would need to be evaluated prior to deployment.

The development of ocean storage technology is generally at a conceptual stage; thus, we will only discuss general principles. There has been limited engineering analysis and experimental studies of these conceptual technologies for ocean storage (Nihous, 1997), and no field-testing. No operational experience exists. Various technology concepts have been proposed to improve isolation from the atmosphere or diminish environmental consequences of CO2 injected into the ocean. Further research and development would be needed to make technologies available, but no major technical barriers are apparent.

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