Info

Viscosity (@ STP)

13.72 ^N.s m-2 (or ^Pa.s)

Thermal conductivity (@ STP)

14.65 mW (m K-1)

Solubility in water (@ STP)

1.716 vol vol-1

Enthalpy (@ STP)

21.34 kJ mol-1

Entropy (@ STP)

117.2 J mol K-1

Entropy of formation

213.8 J mol K-1

Liquid Phase

Vapour pressure (at 20 °C)

58.5 bar

Liquid density (at -20 °C and 19.7 bar)

1032 kg m-3

Viscosity (@ STP)

99 ^N.s m-2 (or ^Pa.s)

Solid Phase

Density of carbon dioxide snow at freezing point

1562 kg m-3

Latent heat of vaporisation (1.013 bar at sublimation point)

571.1 kJ kg-1

Where STP stands for Standard Temperature and Pressure, which is 0°C and 1.013 bar. Sources: Air Liquide gas data table; Kirk-Othmer (1985); NIST (2003).

Where STP stands for Standard Temperature and Pressure, which is 0°C and 1.013 bar. Sources: Air Liquide gas data table; Kirk-Othmer (1985); NIST (2003).

Figure AI.2 Variation of CO, density as a function of temperature and pressure (Bachu, 2003).
Figure AI.3 Vapour pressure of CO, as a function of temperature (Span and Wagner, 1996).

water also decreases with increasing water salinity by as much as one order of magnitude (Figure AI.7). The following empirical relation (Enick and Klara, 1990) can be used to estimate CO, solubility in brackish water and brine:

0.1302838 • 10-2 • S2 - 0.1871199 • 10-4 • S3) (1)

where wCO2 is CO2 solubility, S is water salinity (expressed as total dissolved solids in % by weight) and the subscripts w and b stand for pure water and brine, respectively. A solid hydrate separates from aqueous solutions of CO2 that are chilled (below about 11oC) at elevated pressures. A hydrate is a crystalline compound consisting of the host (water) plus guest molecules. The host is formed from a tetrahedral hydrogen-bonding network of water molecules; this network is sufficiently open to create pores (or cavities) that are large enough to contain a variety of other small molecules (the guests). Guest molecules can include CH4 and CO2. CO2 hydrates have similar (but not identical) properties to methane hydrates, which have been extensively studied due to their effects on natural gas production and their potential as future sources of hydrocarbons.

Figure AI.4 Variation of CO2 viscosity as a function of temperature and pressure (Bachu, 2003).

Figure AI.5 Pressure-Enthalpy chart for CO2. Copyright © 1995-2003 ChemicaLogic Corporation, 99 South Bedford Street, Suite 207, Burlington, MA 01803 USA. All rights reserved.

Water as an absorbent for gas impurities

°0 to 20 30 40 50 SO 70 80 SO lOO 110 120 Temperature (°C)

Figure AI.6 Solubility of CO2 in water (Kohl and Nielsen, 1997).

Table AI.2 Thermodynamic data for selected carbon-containing compounds (ref. Cox et al, 1989 and other sources).

Compound

Heat of Formation AHf° (kJ mol-1)

Gibbs free energy of formation AG,° (kJ mol-1)

Standard molar entropy Sf° (J mol-1 K-1)

CO (g)

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