General site-selection criteria
There are many sedimentary regions in the world (Figures 2.42.6 and Figure 5.14) variously suited for CO2 storage. In general, geological storage sites should have (1) adequate capacity and injectivity, (2) a satisfactory sealing caprock or confining unit and (3) a sufficiently stable geological environment to avoid compromising the integrity of the storage site. Criteria for assessing basin suitability (Bachu, 2000, 2003; Bradshaw et al.,
2002) include: basin characteristics (tectonic activity, sediment type, geothermal and hydrodynamic regimes); basin resources (hydrocarbons, coal, salt), industry maturity and infrastructure; and societal issues such as level of development, economy, environmental concerns, public education and attitudes.
The suitability of sedimentary basins for CO2 storage depends in part on their location on the continental plate. Basins formed in mid-continent locations or near the edge of stable continental plates, are excellent targets for long-term CO2 storage because of their stability and structure. Such basins are found within most continents and around the Atlantic, Arctic and Indian Oceans. The storage potential of basins found behind mountains formed by plate collision is likely to be good and these include the Rocky Mountain, Appalachian and Andean basins in the Americas, European basins immediately north of the Alps and Carpathians and west of the Urals and those located south of the Zagros and Himalayas in Asia. Basins located in tectonically active areas, such as those around the Pacific Ocean or the northern Mediterranean, may be less suitable for CO2 storage and sites in these regions must be selected carefully because of the potential for CO2 leakage (Chiodini et al., 2001; Granieri et al., 2003). Basins located on the edges of plates
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