National greenhouse gas inventories
Information on pollutant emissions is usually compiled in 'emission inventories'. Emissions are listed according to categories such as pollutants, sectors, and source and compiled per geographic area and time interval. Many different emission inventories have been prepared for different purposes. Among the commitments in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) all Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities, and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, shall: 'Develop, periodically update, publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties, national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, using comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties'.3
Industrialized countries (Annex I Parties) are required to report annually and developing countries (non-Annex I Parties) to report on greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the Convention periodically, as part of their National Communications to the UNFCCC. National greenhouse gas inventories are prepared using the methodologies in the IPCC Guidelines as complemented by the GPG2000 and GPGLULUCF, or methodologies consistent with these. These inventories should include all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks not covered by the Montreal Protocol. To ensure high quality and accuracy, inventories by Annex I Parties are reviewed by expert review teams coordinated by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The review reports are published on the UNFCCC website4.
The rules and modalities for accounting are elaborated under the Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC, 1997) and the Marrakech Accords5 (UNFCCC, 2002). The Kyoto Protocol specifies emission limitation or reduction commitments by the Annex I Parties for six gases/gas groups: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
At present, CCS is practiced on a very small scale. CCS projects have not generally been described in the national inventory reports of the countries where they take place. An exception is the Sleipner CCS project, which is included in Norway's inventory report.6 Norway provides information on the annual captured and stored amounts, as well as on the amounts of CO2 that escape to the atmosphere during the injection process (amounts have varied from negligible to about 0.8% of the captured amount). The escaping CO2 emissions are
3 Commitment related to the Articles 4.1 (a) and 12.1 (a) of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC).
5 The Marrakech Accords refer to the Report of the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC on its seventh session (COP7), held in Marrakech 29 October to 10 November 2001.
6 Norway's inventory report can be found at http://cdr.eionet. eu.int/no/un/UNFCCC/envqh6rog.
included in the total emissions of Norway. The spread of the CO2 in the storage reservoir has been monitored by seismic methods. No physical leakage has been detected. An uncertainty estimate has not been performed but it is expected to be done when more information is available from the project's monitoring programme.
The scarce reporting of current CCS projects is due largely to the small number and size of industrial CCS projects in operation, as well as to the lack of clarity in the reporting methodologies.
9.2.1 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance
The reporting guidelines under the UNFCCC7, and under the Kyoto Protocol as specified in the Marrakech Accords require Annex I Parties to use the IPCC Guidelines1, as elaborated by the GPG20001, in estimating and reporting national greenhouse gas inventories. The use of the GPG-LULUCF1 will start in 2005 with a one-year trial period8. Non-Annex I Parties also use the IPCC Guidelines in their reporting, and use of GPG2000 and GPG-LULUCF reports is encouraged.9 The main reporting framework (temporal, spatial and sectoral) and the guiding principles of the IPCC Guidelines and good practice guidance reports are given in Box 9.1.
The IPCC Guidelines will be revised and updated by early 200610. In the draft outline for the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, CCS is mentioned in a footnote in the Energy Sector: 'It is recognized that CO2 capture and storage is an important emerging issue in inventory development. The coverage of CO2 storage in this report will be closely coordinated with progress on IPCC SR on CO2 capture and storage. CO2 capture activities will be integrated as appropriate into the methods presented for source categories where it may occur.'
9.2.2 Methodological framework for CO2 capture and storage sys tems in national greenhouse gas inventories
The two main options for including CCS in national greenhouse gas inventories have been identified and analysed using the current methodological framework for total chain from capture to storage (geological and ocean storage). These options are: • Source reduction: To evaluate the CCS systems as mitigation options to reduce emissions to the atmosphere;
7 FCCC/CP2002/7/Add.2: Annexes to Decision 17/CP.8 Guidelines for the preparation of national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention and 18/CP.8 Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, part I: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories.
8 FCCC/SBSTA/2003/L.22 and FCCC/SBSTA/2003/L.22/Add.1.
10 http://www.ipcc.ch/meet/session21.htm: IPCC XXI/Doc.10.
Box 9.1 Main reporting framework (temporal, spatial and sectoral) and guiding principles of the IPCC Guidelines and good practice guidance reports.
The IPCC methodologies for estimating and reporting national greenhouse gas inventories are based on sectoral guidance for reporting of actual emissions and removals of greenhouse gases by gas and by year. The IPCC Guidelines give the framework for the reporting (sectors, categories and sub-categories), default methodologies and default emission/removal factors (the so called Tier 1 methodologies) for the estimation. Higher tier methodologies are based on more sophisticated methods for estimating emissions/removals and on the use of national or regional parameters that accommodate the specific national circumstances. These methodologies are not always described in detail in the IPCC Guidelines. Use of transparent and well-documented national methodologies consistent with those in the IPCC Guidelines is encouraged.
The Good Practice Guidance (GPG) reports facilitate the development of inventories in which the emissions/removals are not over- or under-estimated, so far as can be judged, and in which the uncertainties are reduced as far as practicable. Further aims are to produce transparent, documented, consistent, complete, comparable inventories, which are i) assessed for uncertainties, ii) subject to quality assurance and quality control, and iii) efficient in the use of resources. The GPG reports give guidance on how to choose the appropriate methodologies for specific categories in a country, depending on the importance of the category (key category analysis is used to determine the importance) and on availability of data and resources for the estimation. Decision trees guide the choice of estimation method most suited to the national circumstances. The category-specific guidance linked to the decision trees also provides information on the choice of emission factors and activity data. The GPG reports give guidance on how to meet the requirements of transparency, consistency, completeness, comparability, and accuracy required by the national greenhouse gas inventories.
The Sectors covered in the IPCC Guidelines are: (i) Energy, (ii) Industrial Processes, (iii) Solvent and Other Product Use, (iv) Agriculture, (v) Land Use Change and Forestry, (vi) Waste and (vii) Other. The use of the seventh sector 'Other' is discouraged: 'Efforts should be made to fit all emission sources/sinks into the six categories described above. If it is impossible to do so, however, this category can be used, accompanied by a detailed explanation of the source/sink activity'' (IPCC 1997).
• Sink enhancement: To evaluate the CCS systems using an analogy with the treatment made to CO2 removals by sinks in the sector Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. A balance is made of the CO2 emissions and removals to obtain the net emission or removal. In this option, removals by sinks are related to CO2 storage.
In both options, estimation methodologies could be developed to cover most of the emissions in the CCS system (see Figure 9.1), and reporting could use the current framework for preparation of national greenhouse gas inventories.
In the first option, reduced emissions could be reported in the category where capture takes place. For instance, capture in power plants could be reported using lower emission factors than for plants without CCS. But this could reduce transparency of reporting and make review of the overall impact on emissions more difficult, especially if the capture process and emissions from transportation and storage are not linked. This would be emphasized where transportation and storage includes captured CO2 from many sources, or when these take place across national borders. An alternative would be to track CO2 flows through the entire capture and storage system making transparent how much CO2 was produced, how much was emitted to the atmosphere at each process stage, and how much CO2 was transferred to storage. This latter approach, which appears fully transparent and consistent with earlier UNFCCC agreements, is described in this chapter.
The second option is to report the impact of the CCS system as a sink. For instance, reporting of capture in power plants would not alter the emissions from the combustion process but the stored amount of CO2 would be reported as a removal in the inventory. Application of the second option would require adoption of new definitions not available in the UNFCCC or in the current methodological framework for the preparation of inventories. UNFCCC (1992) defines a sink as 'any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol, or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere'. Although 'removal' was not included explicitly in the UNFCCC definitions, it appears associated with the 'sink' concept. CCS11 systems do not meet the UNFCCC definition for a sink, but given that the definition was agreed without having CCS systems in mind, it is likely that this obstacle could be solved (Torvanger et al., 2005).
General issues of relevance to CCS systems include system boundaries (sectoral, spatial and temporal) and these will vary in importance with the specific system and phases of the system. The basic methodological approaches for system components, together with the status of the methods and availability of data for these are discussed below. Mineral carbonation and industrial use of CO2 are addressed separately.
• Sectoral boundaries: The draft outline for the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (see Section 9.2.1) states that: 'CO2 capture activities will be integrated as appropriate into the methods presented for source/sink categories where they may
11 Few cases are nearer to the 'sink' definition. For example, mineralization can also include fixation from the atmosphere.
CO2 emissions resulting from additional energy requirements for transport
CO2 emissions resulting from additional energy requirements for injection
CO2 emissions resulting from additional energy requirements for transport
CO2 emissions resulting from additional energy requirements for injection
occur'. This approach is followed here when addressing the sectors under which the specific phases of the CCS systems could be reported. The reporting of emissions/removals associated with CO2 capture, transportation, injection and storage processes should be described clearly to fulfil the requirement of transparent reporting.
• Spatial boundaries: National inventories include greenhouse gas emissions and removals taking place within national (including administered) territories and offshore areas over which that country has jurisdiction. Some of the emissions and removals of CCS systems could occur outside the areas under the jurisdiction of the reporting country, an aspect that requires additional consideration and is addressed mainly in Section 9.3.
• Temporal boundaries: Inventories are prepared on a calendar year basis. Some aspects of CCS systems (such as the amount of CO2 captured or fugitive emissions from transportation) could easily be incorporated into an annual reporting system (yearly estimates would be required). However, other emissions (for example, physical leakage of CO2 from geological storage) can occur over a very long period after the injection has been completed - time frames range from hundreds to even millions of years (see further discussion in Section 9.3).
Table 9.1 lists potential sources and emissions of greenhouse gases in the different phases of a CCS system and their relationship with the framework for the reporting (sectors, categories and sub-categories) of the IPCC Guidelines. The relative importance of these potential sources for the national greenhouse inventory can vary from one CCS project to another, depending on factors such as capture technologies and storage site characteristics. Emissions from some of these sources are probably very small, sometimes even insignificant, but to guarantee an appropriate completeness12 of the national inventory, it is necessary to evaluate their contribution.
Some important considerations relative to the source categories and emissions included in Table 9.1 are the following:
• Capture, transportation and injection of CO2 into storage requires energy (the additional energy requirements have been addressed in previous chapters). Greenhouse gas emissions from this energy use are covered by the methodologies and reporting framework in the IPCC Guidelines and GPG2000. Additional methodologies and emission factors can be found in other extensive literature, such as EEA (2001) and US EPA (1995, 2000). Where capture processes take place at the fuel production site, the emissions from the fuel used in the capture process may not be included in the national statistics. Additional methods to cover emissions from this source may be needed. In the current reporting framework, emissions from the additional energy requirements would not be linked to the CCS system.
• Fugitive emissions from CCS systems can occur during capture, compression, liquefaction, transportation and injection of CO2 to the storage reservoir. A general framework for estimation of fugitive emissions is included in the IPCC Guidelines in the Energy sector. The estimation and reporting of fugitive emissions from CCS need further
12 Completeness means that an inventory covers all sources and sinks, as well as all gases included in the IPCC Guidelines and also other existing relevant source/sink categories specific to individual Parties, and therefore may not be included in the IPCC Guidelines. Completeness also means full geographic coverage of sources and sinks of a Party (FCCC/CP/1999/7).
Source category (a)
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