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Injection technology and operations

CO2 lakes must be on the sea floor at a depth below 3000 m 6.5.1 Background (Figures 6.20 and 6.21), because the liquid CO2 must be denser than surrounding sea water (Box 6.2).

These ocean general circulation model calculations did not consider interactions with CaCO sediments or marine biota.

Increased CO2 concentrations in the ocean promote dissolution of CaCO3 sediments, which would tend to increase predicted CO2 retention. This has been modelled for the deep sea with results of greater retention for release in the Atlantic because of high CaCO3 inventory in Atlantic sediments (Archer et al.,

Preliminary numerical simulations of ocean CO2 injection predict increased oceanic retention of injected CO2 with concurrent global warming due to weaker overturning and a more stratified ocean (Jain and Cao, 2005). Some evidence indicates recent increases in stratification in all major ocean basins (e.g., Joos, 2003; McPhaden and Zhang, 2002; Palmer et al., 2004; Stramma et al., 2004).

6.4.4 Limestone neutralization

The amounts of sea water and limestone required to neutralize the acidity of added CO2 indicate that limestone neutralization would be most suitable for CO2 point sources located near both the ocean and large deposits of limestone (Rau and Caldeira,

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