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Figure 6.18 Results are shown for seven ocean general circulation models at three different depths averaged over seven injection locations (Orr, 2004). The percentage efficiency shown is the retained fraction for an injection at a constant rate from 2000 to 2100. Models oceans, agree that deeper injection isolates C02 from the atmosphere longer than shallower injection. For release at 3000 m, most of the added carbon was still isolated from the atmosphere at the end of the 500 year simulations. 64 2

Figure 6.18 Results are shown for seven ocean general circulation models at three different depths averaged over seven injection locations (Orr, 2004). The percentage efficiency shown is the retained fraction for an injection at a constant rate from 2000 to 2100. Models oceans, agree that deeper injection isolates C02 from the atmosphere longer than shallower injection. For release at 3000 m, most of the added carbon was still isolated from the atmosphere at the end of the 500 year simulations. 64 2

Figure 6.19 Comparison of storage results for three injection locations (at 3000 m depth) in ten ocean model simulations (Orr, 2004). Models differ on predictions of C02 fraction retained for release in different

Water column release ocean storage. Among these considerations are environmental consequences, costs, safety, and international issues (including cross border transport). Because environmental consequences, costs, and social and political issues are addressed in other parts of this report, here we briefly consider site selection factors that enhance the fraction retained or reduce the costs.

Large point sources of CO, located near deep water would generally be the most cost effective settings in which to carry out direct CO, injection (Figure 6.21; Section 6.9). While models indicate that site-specific differences exist, they do not yet agree on the ranking of potential sites for effectiveness of direct injection CO2 operations (Orr, 2004).

6.4.3 CO2 lakes on the sea floor

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