I

1000 Km Scale at Equator

Figure 5.1 Location of sites where activities relevant to CO, storage are planned or under way.

early warning that the storage site is not functioning as anticipated and implementation of remediation methods to stop or control CO, releases. Methods to accomplish these are being developed and tested.

There are few, if any, national regulations specifically dealing with CO, storage, but regulations dealing with oil and gas, groundwater and the underground injection of fluids can in many cases be readily adapted and/or adopted. However, there are no regulations relating specifically to long-term responsibility for storage. A number of international laws that predate any consideration of CO, storage are relevant to offshore geological storage; consideration of whether these laws do or do not permit offshore geological storage is under way.

There are gaps in our knowledge, such as regional storage-capacity estimates for many parts of the world. Similarly, better estimation ofleakage rates, improved cost data, better intervention and remediation options, more pilot and demonstration projects and clarity on the issue of long-term stewardship all require consideration. Despite the fact that more work is needed to improve technologies and decrease uncertainty, there appear to be no insurmountable technical barriers to an increased uptake of geological storage as an effective mitigation option.

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