Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 279

6.1 Introduction and background 279

6.1.1 Intentional storage of CO2 in the ocean 279

6.1.2 Relevant background in physical and chemical oceanography 281

6.2 Approaches to release CO2 into the ocean 282

6.2.1 Approaches to releasing CO2 that has been captured, compressed, and transported into the ocean 282

6.2.2 CO2 storage by dissolution of carbonate minerals 290

6.2.3 Other ocean storage approaches 291

6.3 Capacity and fractions retained 291

6.3.1 Capacity 291

6.3.2 Measures of fraction retained 291

6.3.3 Estimation of fraction retained from ocean observations 292

6.3.4 Estimation of fraction retained from model results 292

6.4 Site selection 292

6.4.1 Background 292

6.4.2 Water column release 294

6.4.3 CO2 lakes on the sea floor 295

6.4.4 Limestone neutralization 295

6.5 Injection technology and operations 295

6.5.1 Background 295

6.5.2 Water column release 295

6.5.3 Production of a CO2 lake 296

6.6 Monitoring and verification 296

6.6.1 Background 296

6.6.2 Monitoring amounts and distributions of materials released 296

6.6.3 Approaches and technologies for monitoring environmental effects 298

6.7 Environmental impacts, risks, and risk management 298

6.7.1 Introduction to biological impacts and risk 298

6.7.2 Physiological effects of CO2 301

6.7.3 From physiological mechanisms to ecosystems 305

6.7.4 Biological consequences for water column release scenarios 306

6.7.5 Biological consequences associated with CO2

lakes 307

6.7.6 Contaminants in CO2 streams 307

6.7.7 Risk management 307

6.7.8 Social aspects; public and stakeholder perception 307

6.8 Legal issues 308

6.8.1 International law 308

6.8.2 National laws 309

6.9 Costs 310

6.9.1 Introduction 310

6.9.2 Dispersion from ocean platform or moving ship 310

6.9.3 Dispersion by pipeline extending from shore into shallow to deep water 310

6.9.4 Cost of carbonate neutralization approach 311

6.9.5 Cost of monitoring and verification 311

6.10 Gaps 311 References 311

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