Auto thermal reforming: a process in which the heat for the reaction of CH4 with steam is generated by partial oxidation of ch4.


The production of electricity for own use. Basalt

A type of basic igneous rock which is typically erupted from a volcano.

Aluminium silicate mineral

Natural mineral - such as feldspar, clays, micas, amphiboles - composed of Al2O3 and SiO2 plus other cations.


Organic chemical compound containing one or more nitrogens in -NH2, -NH or -N groups.

Anaerobic condition

Reducing condition that only supports life which does not require free oxygen.


Calcium sulphate: the common hydrous form is called gypsum.

Antarctic Treaty

Applies to the area south of 60 degrees South, and declares that Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only.


Coal with the highest carbon content and therefore the highest rank (q.v.).

Anthropogenic source

Source which is man-made as opposed to natural. Anticline

Folded geological strata that is convex upwards.

Basel Convention

UN Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, which was adopted at Basel on 22 March 1989.


The datum against which change is measured.


A geological region with strata dipping towards a common axis or centre.


Pertaining to the depth of water. Benthic

Pertaining to conditions at depth in bodies of water.

Bicarbonate ion

The anion formed by dissolving carbon dioxide in water, hco3-.


Matter derived recently from the biosphere.

Biomass-based CCS

Carbon capture and storage in which the feedstock (q.v.) is biomass

Bituminous coal

An intermediate rank of coal falling between the extremes of peat and anthracite, and closer to anthracite.


A pipe which is inserted to stabilize the borehole of a well after it is drilled.


Refers to catastrophic failure of a well when the petroleum fluids or water flow unrestricted to the surface.

Bohr effect

The pH-dependent change in the oxygen affinity of blood. Bottom-up model

A model that includes technological and engineering details in the analysis.


In GHG accounting, the separation between accounting units, be they national, organizational, operational, business units or sectors.

Break-even price

The price necessary at a given level of production to cover all costs.


Tendency of a fluid or solid to rise through a fluid of higher density.

Cap rock

Rock of very low permeability that acts as an upper seal to prevent fluid flow out of a reservoir.

Capillary entry pressure

Additional pressure needed for a liquid or gas to enter a pore and overcome surface tension.

Capture efficiency

The fraction of CO2 separated from the gas stream of a source Carbon credit

A convertible and transferable instrument that allows an organization to benefit financially from an emission reduction.

Carbon trading

A market-based approach that allows those with excess emissions to trade that excess for reduced emissions elsewhere.


Natural minerals composed of various anions bonded to a CO32- cation (e.g. calcite, dolomite, siderite, limestone).

Carbonate neutralization

A method for storing carbon in the ocean based upon the reaction of CO2 with a mineral carbonate such as limestone to produce bicarbonate anions and soluble cations.

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Guide to Alternative Fuels

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