Conversion factors

Some conversion factors relevant to CO2 capture and storage are given in Table AI.5 Other, less precise conversions and some approximate equivalents are given in Table AI.6.

AI.4 Fuels and emissions

AI.4.1 Carbonaceous fuels

Carbonaceous fuels can be defined as materials rich in carbon and capable of producing energy on oxidation. From a historical perspective, most of these fuels can be viewed as carriers of solar energy, having been derived from plants which depended on solar energy for growth. Thus, these fuels can be distinguished by the time taken for their formation, which is millions of years for fossil fuels, hundreds of years for peat and months-to-years for biofuels. On the scale of the human lifespan, fossil fuels are regarded as non-renewable carbonaceous fuels while biofuels are regarded as renewable. Coal, oil and natural gas are the major fossil fuels. Wood, agro-wastes, etcetera are the main biofuels for stationary uses but, in some parts of the world, crops such as soya, sugar cane and oil-seed plants are grown specifically to produce biofuels, especially transport fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Peat is close to being a biofuel in terms of its relatively short formation time compared with fossil fuels.

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel present on Earth. Coal originated from the arrested decay of the remains of plant life which flourished in swamps and bogs many millions of years ago in a humid, tropical climate with abundant rainfall.

To convert:

Into the following units:

Multiply by:

US gallon


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