Modeling changes of temperature field

Transformation of the permafrost temperature field caused by Ts variations may be modeled numerically while solving a 1-D equation of heat conduction for some real sections. In the presence of a phase transition at the permafrost borders one should use two heat conduction equations for two blocks frozen and thawed. The effective difference-iterative method for solving one- and many-dimensional Stefan type problems was used (Balobaev, 1991). Information used for modeling included present day...

Dynamics Of The Vertical Distribution Of Co2 And Co Concentrations Over Western Siberia 19972003

Inoue2, T. Machida2, M.V. Panchenko1 and A.V. Fofonov1 1Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, 1, Akademicheskii Ave., 634055, Tomsk, Russia National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, 305-8506, Tsukuba, Japan Abstract In this paper we present some results of airborne measurements of main greenhouse gases over the southern part of West Siberia, which were started in 1997 within the framework of a joint Japanese-Russian Project on the study of...

Assessment Of The Longterm Fate Of Co2 Injected Into The Weyburn Field

System-Level Modeling of CO2 Migration and Potential Impacts M.J. Stenhouse, W. Zhou and R. Arthur Monitor Scientific LLC, Suite 555, 3900 S. Wadsworth Blvd., Denver CO 80235, U.S.A. Abstract CO2 is being injected into a 1450-m deep oil reservoir located in Weyburn, Saskatchewan, Canada, for enhanced oil recovery. To complement this commercial activity, a major research project to study geological sequestration and storage of CO2, known as the International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO2...

References

Acocella, V., Salvini, F., Funiciello, R., and Faccenna, C., 1999, The role of transfer structures on volcanic activity at Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res., 91 123-139. Allard, P., Carbonelle, J., Dajlevic, D., Le Bronec, J., Morel, P., Robe, M. C., Maurenas J.M., Faivre-Pierret R., Martin D., Sabroux J.C., and Zettwoog P., 1991a, Eruptive and diffusive emissions of CO2 from Mount Etna, Nature, 351 387-391. Allard, P., Maiorani, A., Tedesco, D., Cortecci, G., and Turi,...

Acknowledgements

The organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO, which made this workshop possible. A sincere thank you is also extended to all the staff at the Petroleum Chemistry Institute in Tomsk for all their hard work in providing excellent facilities and logistical support, and to Prof. Jan Klerkx of The International Bureau for Envirnmental Studies (IBES) for his contribution to the successful organisation of the event. Finally the attendance of...

Injection Into Ch4 Hydrate Reservoirs

Injecting CO2 into subsurface CH4 hydrate reservoirs would displace some of the CH4 in the hydrate crystal lattice, converting simple CH4 hydrates into either simple CO2 hydrates or double CH4-CO2 hydrates. This process could be of particular interest for many reasons. It enables low carbon energy recovery in the form of CH4 gas, while offsetting the cost of CO2 transportation and storage. In addition sediment pore spaces potentially re-occupied by the CO2 hydrate would maintain the mechanical...

Reactivity of carbonate reservoir rocks at Weyburn

CO2 is being injected into the Midale Formation carbonate reservoir as part of an enhanced oil recovery project at the Weyburn oilfield, Saskatchewan, Canada. As this is an active and mature oil field, a lot of wells are present, core samples are available and fluid samples can be taken at almost any time. A three-pronged approach has been used by the North American and European teams as part of the IEA CO2 monitoring and storage project (Wilson and Monea, 2004) to study the impact of CO2 upon...

What Can We Learn From Natural Analogues

An overview of how analogues can benefit the geological storage of CO2. British Geological Survey, Key worth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK Abstract The timescales needed for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) are potentially thousands of years. Therefore, before large-scale underground CO2 storage can take place, it will be necessary to demonstrate that the processes are well understood, risks to the environment and human populations are low, and environmental disturbances can be...

Subsurface Carbon Dioxide Storage Through Clathrate Hydrate Formation

Yang, B. Tohidi Centre for Gas Hydrate Research, Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Abstract Rising atmospheric emissions as a result of fossil fuel consumption is a major concern for the developed and developing countries, considering the role it plays in the greenhouse effect and hence global climate change. Various schemes for underground CO2 storage (viz. geologic disposal into coal seams, depleted oil gas...

Structural Outline Of Lake Baikal And The Venting Structures

Lake Baikal consists of three distinct bathymetric basins the South Baikal (SBB), Central Baikal (CBB) and North Baikal basins (NBB). Each of these also corresponds to a well-defined sedimentary basin, bounded by steep border faults, which are best expressed along the northwestern side of the rift. The three basins are at least moderately asymmetric and tend to adopt a half-graben shape (Zonenshain et al., 1992 Hutchinson et al., 1992 Scholz et al., 1993). They are separated by active...

Selection Of Liquid So2 Disposal Site In The Norilsk Industrial Area

A geological analysis of the Norilsk Industrial Area was conducted to select the most appropriate site for liquid sulphur dioxide disposal based on available data. Figure 5. Geological profile of the Vologochanskaya syncline (Mezhvilk et al., 1972) T1h -Lower Triasian, Chachankanskaya Series, T1sv - Lower Triasian, Syverminskaya Series, D1zb - Lower Devonian, Zubovskaya Suite, D1zb - Lower Devonian, Zubovskaya Suite, S2ld2 -Upper Silurian, Upper Ludlow Series, S2ld1 - Upper Silurian, Lower...

Seismic modeling

Seismic modelling aimed at verifying the in situ injected mass of CO2 has utilised both inverse and forward modelling techniques. Forward modelling, via history-matched reservoir simulations of the CO2 plume produces a reasonable match to the observed data (Figure 4), though the detailed geometry of the plume layering remains uncertain. Figure 4. The 2001 plume a) observed seismic data (opacity display of the 2001 minus 1994 difference cube) b) reservoir simulation. Figure 4. The 2001 plume a)...

A tectonic driving force

Among the processes that may be involved in the shallowing of the base of the GHSZ, the destabilization of the gas hydrates and the upward channeling of fluids (Dillon et al., 1998 Henriet and Mienert, 1998 Trehu et al., 1999), only two are relevant to the specific sedimentary and tectonic environment of Lake Baikal compaction-driven fluid flow and tectonically driven fluid flow. Compaction-driven fluid flow may indeed play a role, as the area south of Selenga delta is the site of major...

Permafrost Distribution Temperature

Permafrost Distribution

According to its geographical position the cryolithozone is subdivided into subaeral, shelf and subglacial. The subaeral cryolithozone is the most widespread and is usually made up of surface-laying permafrost. The shelf cryolithozone is typical for arctic seas of the Siberian sector of the Russian Federation. The subglacial permafrost underlay glacial covers on the northern islands and in highlands. Strictly speaking permafrost is not restricted to the polar territories, but rather it extends...

Modern temperature field of permafrost

Temperature sections (temperature distribution with depth below ground surface) may be divided into two groups typical for stable and unstable permafrost (see examples in Fig. 5). The upper part of stable permafrost is cooled between -6 to -15 C. At certain depths the temperature begins to increase due to the influence of terrestrial heat flow. It reaches zero at a depth of between 200-600 m. In blocks of unstable (warm) permafrost the temperature in the entire frozen rock layer is not much...

The Solfatara area

The Solfatara area has been characterized by intense and diffuse fumarolic and hydrothermal activity since Roman times. The area was investigated by means of a detailed soil-gas survey in the inter crater sector, during which 32 soil gas flux measurements (1 sample 100 m) were carried out using an accumulation chamber and a portable gas-chromatograph. OCO2 is typically 1127.32 gr m2*d, although the highest flux values were found in the La fangaia and near the Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova...

The Geology Of The Weyburn Oilfield And The Co2eor Operation

The Weyburn oilfield is in south-east Saskatchewan, Canada (Figure 1a) and lies in the north-eastern part of the Williston Basin. It was discovered in 1954, is now operated by EnCana Resources and covers some 180 square kilometres of prairie. Medium gravity sour crude oil (25 to 34 degree API) is produced from the uppermost Midale Beds (Charles Formation), which represent a transgressive-regressive cycle and comprise a succession of upwards shoaling, shallow marine carbonate-evaporite sediments...

State Of Co2 Capture And Subsurface Storage Activities In Germany

1RWTH-Aachen University, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen, Germany Bundesanstalt f r Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, Germany Abstract The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is the greatest carbon emitter in Europe and is responsible for 3.4 of the world's total fossil fuel-based carbon emissions. In the Kyoto Protocol and national climate protection programs Germany has committed to substantial...

Results And Discussion 41 Panarea island

In proximity of Panarea island (Aeolian islands, Southern Italy) a huge submarine volcanic-hydrothermal gas burst occurred during November, 2002. The high-pressure gas release created sinkholes with the collapse of the seafloor. During the first months of Panarea activity, some vertical logs were performed in the area characterised by gas emissions (Fig. 2) which showed the presence of convective cells containing a mixture of water and gas from the vents. Furthermore, they revealed a...

The Role Of Fossil Fuels In The 21st Century

Research Institute of Applied Chemistry, University of Miskolc, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvaros POB 2, Hungary Abstract According to a widely accepted forecast the global energy consumption, which is roughly 400 EJ today, will quadruple by the end of the century and the use of fossil fuels will probably increase until the middle of the century. Hence, the energy scenario definitely implies that the emission of greenhouse gases will also increase by a minimum 30 , leveling off at that value for the...

Permafrost Origin Ice Content

Permafrost is a natural geological formation. There have been several periods of cooling during the geological evolution of the Earth which caused the formation of frozen strata in the Earth's crust. Polar migration and continental drift give evidence of ancient freezing in various sites, including those that occur nowadays in equatorial latitudes. The most ancient freezing period during the Proterozoic (more than 2 billion years ago) corresponded to the Huronian glaciation. This was followed...

Long term predictions of clay cap rock reactivity at Sleipner

CO2 is being injected into the Utsira sand, which is overlain by the 250 m thick Nordland shale acting as a cap rock. Due to buoyancy effects the injected CO2 moves upward from the injection point and accumulates under the overlying cap rock - under the current conditions CO2 is in a supercritical state. The CO2 will partially dissolve into the cap rock formation water and may thus subsequently diffuse upward into the cap rock. It is likely that this will lead to reaction with minerals present...

Carbon Balance And The Emission Of Greenhouse Gases In Boreal Forests And Bogs Of Siberia

Onuchin V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Abstract Zonal patterns of above-ground phytomass dynamics and carbon storage in above-ground vegetation, phytodetritus and humus were revealed based on the study of the carbon balance and its components in forest ecosystems of the Yenisei meridian transect. Results indicate that the carbon storage ratio in different plant layers is determined by climatic regimes. For example pine stands...

Long term reactivity of sandstone reservoir rocks at Montmiral

At Montmiral, supercritical CO2 has accumulated in Triassic sandstones below 2400m depth (Czernichowski-Lauriol et al., 2002 Pearce et al., 2004). Based upon the tectonic setting and the results of petrographic studies, this accumulation occurred in post-Pyrenean times about 15 million years ago. The reservoir is sealed by Domerian and Callovian clay and marl. The Montmiral CO2 field (98 CO2) was discovered during gas and oil exploration in the 1960's and is currently used for industrial CO2...

Simulation Of Soderberg Anode Formation Under Laboratory Conditions

Simulation of industrial carbonisation conditions permits an estimate of the ecological danger caused by the various process stages when using different feedstock. As such a laboratory study of MP, HP and APMP, APHP was carried out under conditions which simulate both regimes of Soderberg anode formation slow (1 C min) carbonisation of 'dry' anode paste and formation of the anode body, and rapid heating (70 C min) carbonisation of the studhole anode paste and formation of a 'secondary' anode....

German involvement in international projects

The Joule II Project Underground Disposal of Carbon Dioxide was the first European research project examining issues associated with underground CO2 disposal. Its goal was to assess quality and quantity of CO2 available from fossil fuel power plants, to examine pipeline transport of CO2 and to examine various options for underground disposal. Furthermore it addressed safety and stability issues, investigated the geochemistry associated with underground disposal and carried out techno-economic...

The Telese area Southern Italy

The studied area belongs to the Sannio-Matese zone, one of the most active seismic regions of the southern Apennines, where destructive earthquakes have occurred several times in the past. At the present, the area is characterised by low-energy sequences (Mdmax 4.1) but not much is known about the tectonic structures responsible for such seismicity (Vilardo et al., 2003). The Sannio-Matese area is located in the frontal portion of the Apennine fold and thrust belts, at the junction between the...

The Effect Of Co2 And Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Climate And Global Warming

The CO2 content of the atmosphere has been essentially constant throughout the past centuries (Fig. 14), but measurable change can be detected from 1950 and today the characteristic concentration is about 380400 ppm (Arscott, 2003 IPCC, 1995 Falkowski, 2002). According to a reliable forecast the CO2 content in the atmosphere might be as high as 750 ppm by the end of the 21st century. Since CO2 directly influences the average temperature of the earth its accumulation in the atmosphere results in...

Timelapse Seabed Gravimetry

Measurements of the gravitational acceleration due to mass distributions within the earth may be used to detect variations in subsurface rock or fluid density. Although of much lower spatial resolution than the seismic method, gravimetry offers some important complementary adjuncts to time-lapse seismic monitoring. Firstly, it can provide independent verification of the change in subsurface mass during injection via Gauss's Theorem. This potentially important capability may enable estimates to...

Natural Leakage Of Helium From Italian Sedimentary Basins Of The Adriatic Structural Margin

Perspectives for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide G. Ciotoli1, S. Lombardi1 and F. Zarlenga2 1Earth Sciences Department, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy 2ENEA-Cr-Casaccia- Prot Prev, Italy Abstract Soil gas surveys were performed along the Adriatic foredeep (Vasto, Ferrandina, Pisticci basins), in order to evaluate the relationship between neotectonics and gas leakage from hydrocarbon reservoirs. More than 4000 soil gas samples were collected in the area and analyzed for...

Remote Sensing And Gis For Spatial Analysis Of Anthropogenic Carbon Oxide Emissions

Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, RAS, 3 Academichesky Ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia Abstract Western Siberia hosts one of the main oil-bearing basins in Russia, producing more than 70 of the country's oil. It is known that oil field flares release carbon oxides into the atmosphere which contribute to the greenhouse effect. This work details the development of a Geographical Information System (GIS) technique which uses satellite image processing to assess the spatial irregularities of...

Satellite Image Processing And Modeling Of Pollution Zones

Satellite images are widely applied to the study of environmental status. High and middle resolution images obtained from the Russian satellite Resource-O1 were used in this paper. Satellite image processing involves the following procedures 1. Validation of remote sensing data. 2. Classification and interpretation. Ecosystem maps, forest-use plans and field data may all be used for validation and classification. All basic forest-swamp ecosystem types are represented within the pilot study...

Seismic Tomography

Time-lapse analysis, required to detect small changes in the reservoir due to fluid movements, often has the problem that the seismic data has been collected with different acquisition configurations and technologies, and thus special processing aimed at rendering the different data sets equivalent is required (e.g. Magesan et al., 2005). Another problem that may mask the velocity variations in the reservoir are the seasonal changes of the overburden (the sea-water layer in marine surveys or...

CO2 storage investigation with a visual glass micromodel

Micromodel Injection

A Visual Micromodel was used to study the potential for the underground sequestration of carbon dioxide in methane hydrate reservoirs. Phase behaviour of reservoir fluids in porous media have been extensively studied earlier using micromodels (Sohrabi et al., 2000), while its potential application in gas hydrate studies has been demonstrated by Tohidi et al. (2001). Pore scale studies were aimed towards providing insight into gas hydrate growth from dissolved gas (CO2-water) and gas hydrate...