Modern temperature field of permafrost

Temperature sections (temperature distribution with depth below ground surface) may be divided into two groups typical for stable and unstable permafrost (see examples in Fig. 5). The upper part of stable permafrost is cooled between -6 to -15 C. At certain depths the temperature begins to increase due to the influence of terrestrial heat flow. It reaches zero at a depth of between 200-600 m. In blocks of unstable (warm) permafrost the temperature in the entire frozen rock layer is not much...

The Solfatara area

The Solfatara area has been characterized by intense and diffuse fumarolic and hydrothermal activity since Roman times. The area was investigated by means of a detailed soil-gas survey in the inter crater sector, during which 32 soil gas flux measurements (1 sample 100 m) were carried out using an accumulation chamber and a portable gas-chromatograph. OCO2 is typically 1127.32 gr m2*d, although the highest flux values were found in the La fangaia and near the Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova...

The Geology Of The Weyburn Oilfield And The Co2eor Operation

The Weyburn oilfield is in south-east Saskatchewan, Canada (Figure 1a) and lies in the north-eastern part of the Williston Basin. It was discovered in 1954, is now operated by EnCana Resources and covers some 180 square kilometres of prairie. Medium gravity sour crude oil (25 to 34 degree API) is produced from the uppermost Midale Beds (Charles Formation), which represent a transgressive-regressive cycle and comprise a succession of upwards shoaling, shallow marine carbonate-evaporite sediments...

State Of Co2 Capture And Subsurface Storage Activities In Germany

1RWTH-Aachen University, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen, Germany Bundesanstalt f r Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, Germany Abstract The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is the greatest carbon emitter in Europe and is responsible for 3.4 of the world's total fossil fuel-based carbon emissions. In the Kyoto Protocol and national climate protection programs Germany has committed to substantial...

Results And Discussion 41 Panarea island

In proximity of Panarea island (Aeolian islands, Southern Italy) a huge submarine volcanic-hydrothermal gas burst occurred during November, 2002. The high-pressure gas release created sinkholes with the collapse of the seafloor. During the first months of Panarea activity, some vertical logs were performed in the area characterised by gas emissions (Fig. 2) which showed the presence of convective cells containing a mixture of water and gas from the vents. Furthermore, they revealed a...

The Role Of Fossil Fuels In The 21st Century

Research Institute of Applied Chemistry, University of Miskolc, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvaros POB 2, Hungary Abstract According to a widely accepted forecast the global energy consumption, which is roughly 400 EJ today, will quadruple by the end of the century and the use of fossil fuels will probably increase until the middle of the century. Hence, the energy scenario definitely implies that the emission of greenhouse gases will also increase by a minimum 30 , leveling off at that value for the...

Permafrost Origin Ice Content

Permafrost is a natural geological formation. There have been several periods of cooling during the geological evolution of the Earth which caused the formation of frozen strata in the Earth's crust. Polar migration and continental drift give evidence of ancient freezing in various sites, including those that occur nowadays in equatorial latitudes. The most ancient freezing period during the Proterozoic (more than 2 billion years ago) corresponded to the Huronian glaciation. This was followed...

Long term predictions of clay cap rock reactivity at Sleipner

CO2 is being injected into the Utsira sand, which is overlain by the 250 m thick Nordland shale acting as a cap rock. Due to buoyancy effects the injected CO2 moves upward from the injection point and accumulates under the overlying cap rock - under the current conditions CO2 is in a supercritical state. The CO2 will partially dissolve into the cap rock formation water and may thus subsequently diffuse upward into the cap rock. It is likely that this will lead to reaction with minerals present...

Carbon Balance And The Emission Of Greenhouse Gases In Boreal Forests And Bogs Of Siberia

Onuchin V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Abstract Zonal patterns of above-ground phytomass dynamics and carbon storage in above-ground vegetation, phytodetritus and humus were revealed based on the study of the carbon balance and its components in forest ecosystems of the Yenisei meridian transect. Results indicate that the carbon storage ratio in different plant layers is determined by climatic regimes. For example pine stands...

Long term reactivity of sandstone reservoir rocks at Montmiral

At Montmiral, supercritical CO2 has accumulated in Triassic sandstones below 2400m depth (Czernichowski-Lauriol et al., 2002 Pearce et al., 2004). Based upon the tectonic setting and the results of petrographic studies, this accumulation occurred in post-Pyrenean times about 15 million years ago. The reservoir is sealed by Domerian and Callovian clay and marl. The Montmiral CO2 field (98 CO2) was discovered during gas and oil exploration in the 1960's and is currently used for industrial CO2...

Simulation Of Soderberg Anode Formation Under Laboratory Conditions

Simulation of industrial carbonisation conditions permits an estimate of the ecological danger caused by the various process stages when using different feedstock. As such a laboratory study of MP, HP and APMP, APHP was carried out under conditions which simulate both regimes of Soderberg anode formation slow (1 C min) carbonisation of 'dry' anode paste and formation of the anode body, and rapid heating (70 C min) carbonisation of the studhole anode paste and formation of a 'secondary' anode....

German involvement in international projects

The Joule II Project Underground Disposal of Carbon Dioxide was the first European research project examining issues associated with underground CO2 disposal. Its goal was to assess quality and quantity of CO2 available from fossil fuel power plants, to examine pipeline transport of CO2 and to examine various options for underground disposal. Furthermore it addressed safety and stability issues, investigated the geochemistry associated with underground disposal and carried out techno-economic...

The Telese area Southern Italy

The studied area belongs to the Sannio-Matese zone, one of the most active seismic regions of the southern Apennines, where destructive earthquakes have occurred several times in the past. At the present, the area is characterised by low-energy sequences (Mdmax 4.1) but not much is known about the tectonic structures responsible for such seismicity (Vilardo et al., 2003). The Sannio-Matese area is located in the frontal portion of the Apennine fold and thrust belts, at the junction between the...

The Effect Of Co2 And Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Climate And Global Warming

The CO2 content of the atmosphere has been essentially constant throughout the past centuries (Fig. 14), but measurable change can be detected from 1950 and today the characteristic concentration is about 380400 ppm (Arscott, 2003 IPCC, 1995 Falkowski, 2002). According to a reliable forecast the CO2 content in the atmosphere might be as high as 750 ppm by the end of the 21st century. Since CO2 directly influences the average temperature of the earth its accumulation in the atmosphere results in...

Timelapse Seabed Gravimetry

Measurements of the gravitational acceleration due to mass distributions within the earth may be used to detect variations in subsurface rock or fluid density. Although of much lower spatial resolution than the seismic method, gravimetry offers some important complementary adjuncts to time-lapse seismic monitoring. Firstly, it can provide independent verification of the change in subsurface mass during injection via Gauss's Theorem. This potentially important capability may enable estimates to...

Natural Leakage Of Helium From Italian Sedimentary Basins Of The Adriatic Structural Margin

Perspectives for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide G. Ciotoli1, S. Lombardi1 and F. Zarlenga2 1Earth Sciences Department, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy 2ENEA-Cr-Casaccia- Prot Prev, Italy Abstract Soil gas surveys were performed along the Adriatic foredeep (Vasto, Ferrandina, Pisticci basins), in order to evaluate the relationship between neotectonics and gas leakage from hydrocarbon reservoirs. More than 4000 soil gas samples were collected in the area and analyzed for...

Remote Sensing And Gis For Spatial Analysis Of Anthropogenic Carbon Oxide Emissions

Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, RAS, 3 Academichesky Ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia Abstract Western Siberia hosts one of the main oil-bearing basins in Russia, producing more than 70 of the country's oil. It is known that oil field flares release carbon oxides into the atmosphere which contribute to the greenhouse effect. This work details the development of a Geographical Information System (GIS) technique which uses satellite image processing to assess the spatial irregularities of...

Satellite Image Processing And Modeling Of Pollution Zones

Satellite images are widely applied to the study of environmental status. High and middle resolution images obtained from the Russian satellite Resource-O1 were used in this paper. Satellite image processing involves the following procedures 1. Validation of remote sensing data. 2. Classification and interpretation. Ecosystem maps, forest-use plans and field data may all be used for validation and classification. All basic forest-swamp ecosystem types are represented within the pilot study...

Seismic Tomography

Time-lapse analysis, required to detect small changes in the reservoir due to fluid movements, often has the problem that the seismic data has been collected with different acquisition configurations and technologies, and thus special processing aimed at rendering the different data sets equivalent is required (e.g. Magesan et al., 2005). Another problem that may mask the velocity variations in the reservoir are the seasonal changes of the overburden (the sea-water layer in marine surveys or...

CO2 storage investigation with a visual glass micromodel

A Visual Micromodel was used to study the potential for the underground sequestration of carbon dioxide in methane hydrate reservoirs. Phase behaviour of reservoir fluids in porous media have been extensively studied earlier using micromodels (Sohrabi et al., 2000), while its potential application in gas hydrate studies has been demonstrated by Tohidi et al. (2001). Pore scale studies were aimed towards providing insight into gas hydrate growth from dissolved gas (CO2-water) and gas hydrate...