Anderson, L. A. & Sarmiento, J. L. 1994 Redfield ratios of remineralization determined by nutrient data analysis. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 65-80. (doi:10.1029/93GB03318). Anderson, T. R. 2005 Plankton functional type modelling: running before we can walk?

J. Plankton Res. 27, 1073-1081. (doi:10.1093/plankt/fbi076) Arrigo, K. R. 2005 Marine micro-organisms and global nutrient cycles. Nature 437, 349-355. (doi:10.1038/nature04159)

Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E. & Rothery, P. 2004 Long-term decline in krill stocks and increase in Salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432, 100-103. (doi:10.1038/nature02996) Aumont, O. & Bopp, L. 2006 Globalizing results from ocean in situ iron fertilization.

Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 20, GB2017. (doi:10.1029/2005GB002591) Beaugrand, G., Brander, K. M., Lindley, J. A., Souissi, S. & Reid, P. C. 2003 Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North Sea. Nature 426, 661-664. (doi:10.1038/nature02164) Beaulieu, S. R. 2002 Accumulation and fate of phytodetritus on the sea floor. Oceanogr.

Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 40, 171-232. Bellerby, R. G. J., Olsen, A., Furevik, T. & Anderson, L. A. 2005 Response of the surface ocean CO2 system in the Nordic Seas and North Atlantic to climate change. In Climate Variability in the Nordic Seas, eds. H. Drange, T. M. Dokken, T. Furevik, R. Gerdes & W. Berger. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, pp. 189-198. Billett, D. S. M., Bett, B. J., Rice, A. L., Thurston, M. H., Galeron, J., Sibuet, M. & Wolff, G. A. 2001 Long-term change in the megabenthos of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain NE Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr. 50, 325-348. (doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00060-x) Blain, S. et al. 2007 Effect of natural iron fertilization on carbon sequestration in the

Southern Ocean. Nature 446, 1070-1074. (doi:10.1038/nature05700) Boyd, P. W. et al. 2007 Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993-2005: synthesis and future directions. Science 315, 612-617. (doi:10.1126/science.1131669) Brewer, P. G., Peltzer, E. T., Friederich, G., Aya, I. & Yamane, K. 2000 Experiments on the ocean sequestration of fossil fuel CO2: pH measurements and hydrate formation. Mar. Chem. 72, 83-93. (doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(00)00074-8) Caldeira, K. & Wickett, M. E. 2003 Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425,

365. (doi:10.1038/425365a) Chen, C.-T. A., Lim, C.-M., Huang, B.-T. & Chang, L.-F. 1996 Stoichometry of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen in the particulate matter of the western North Pacific marginal seas. Mar. Chem. 54, 179-190. (doi:10.1016/0304-4203(96)00021-7) Christian, J. R., Lewis, M. R. & Karl, D. M. 1997 Vertical fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre near Hawaii. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. 102, 15 667-15 677. (doi:10.1029/97JC00369) Cloern, J.E. 2001 Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem.

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 210, 223-253. (doi:10.3354/meps210223) Cowie, G. 2005 The biogeochemistry of Arabian Sea surficial sediments: a review of recent studies. Prog. Oceanogr. 65, 260-289. (doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2005.03.003). Cushing, D. H. 1975 Natural mortality of plaice. J. Du Conseil. 36, 150-157. Dam, H. G. & Drapeau, D. T. 1995 Coagulation efficiency, organic-matter glues and the dynamics of particles during a phytoplankton bloom in a mesocosm study. Deep Sea Res. II42, 111-123. (doi:10.1016/0967-0645(95)00007-D) Danovaro, R., Gambi, C., Dell'Anno, A., Corinaldesi, C., Fraschetti, S., Vanreusel, A., Vincx, M. & Gooday, A. J. 2008 Exponential decline of deep-sea ecosystem functioning linked to benthic biodiversity loss. Curr. Biol. 18, 1-8. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.056) Davies, A. M. & Xing, J. 2005 Modelling process influencing shelf edge exchange of water and suspended sediment. Continental Shelf Res. 25, 973-1001. (doi:10.1016/j.csr.2004.12.006) de Baar, H.J. W. et al. 2005 Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: from the iron age in the age of enlightenment. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 110, C9. (doi:10.1029/2004JC002601)

Delille, B., Harlay, D. & Zondervan, I. 2005 Response of primary production and calcification to changes of pCO2 during experimental blooms of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB2023. (doi:10.1029/2004GB002318) Diaz, R.J. 2001 Overview of hypoxia around the world. J. Environ. Qual. 30, 275-281. Diaz, R. J., Solan, M. & Valente, R. M. 2004 A review of approaches for classifying benthic habitats and evaluating habitat quality. J. Environ. Manage. 73, 165-181. (doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.06.004) Domenici, P., Lefrancois, C. & Shingles, A. 2007 Hypoxia and the antipredator behaviours of fishes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 362, 2105-2121. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2103) Doney, S. C. 1999 Major challenges confronting marine biogeochemical modelling. Glob.

Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 705-714. (doi:10.1029/1999GB900039) Dutkiewicz, S., Follows, M. J. & Parekh, P. 2005 Interactions of the iron and phosphorus cycles: a three-dimensional model study. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1021. (doi:10.1029/2004GB002342) Dvortsov, V.L., Geller, M. A., Solomon, S., Schauffler, S.M., Atlas, E.L. & Blake, D.R. 1999 Rethinking reactive halogen budgets in the midlatitude lower stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1699-1702. (doi:10.1029/1999GL900309) Falkowski, P. G. 1997 Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological sequestration of CO2 in the ocean. Nature 387, 272-275. (doi:10.1038/387272a0) Fasham, M. J. R., Flynn, K. J., Pondaven, P., Anderson, T. R. & Boyd, P. W. 2006 Development of a robust ecosystem model to predict the role of iron on biogeochemical cycles: a comparison of results for iron-replete and iron-limited areas, and the SOIREE iron-enrichment experiment. Deep Sea Res. 153, 333-366. (doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2005.09.011) Flynn, K.J. 2001 A mechanistic model for describing dynamic multi-nutrient, light, temperature interactions in phytoplankton. J. Plankton Res. 23, 977-997. (doi:10.1093/plankt/23.9.977) Fuhrman, J. A. & Capone, D. G. 1991 Possible biogeochemical consequences of ocean fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 1951-1959. Gage, J. D. & Tyler, P. A. 1991 Deep Sea Biology: A Natural History of Organisms at the

Deep-Sea Floor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Gehlen, M., Bopp, L., Ernprin, N., Aumont, O., Heinze, C. & Raguencau, O. 2006

Reconciling surface ocean productivity, export fluxes and sediment composition in a global biogeochemical ocean model. Biogeosciences 3, 521-537. Gibbs, S. J., Bown, P. R., Sessa, J. A., Bralower, T. J. & Wilson, P. A. 2006 Nannoplankton extinction and origination across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science 314, 1770-1773. (doi:10.1126/science.1133902) Glover, A. G., Smith, C. R., Paterson, G. L. C., Wilson, G. D. F., Hawkins, L. & Sheader, M. 2002 Polychaete species diversity in the central Pacific abyss: local and regional patterns, and relationships with productivity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 240, 157-170. (doi:10.3354/meps240157) Hallegraeff, G.M. 1993 A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32, 79-99. Harada, S., Watanabe, M., Kohata, K., Ioriya, T., Kunugi, M., Kimura, T., Fujimori, S., Koshikawa, H. & Sato, K. 1996 Analyses of planktonic ecosystem structure in coastal seas using a large-scale stratified mesocosm: a new approach to understanding the effects of physical, biochemical and ecological factors on phytoplankton species succession. Water Sci. Technol. 34, 219-226. (doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(96)00748-2) Harper, D. 2000 The global chloromethane cycle: biosynthesis, biodegradation and metabolic role. Nat. Prod. Rep. 17, 337-348. (doi:10.1039/a809400d)

Hedges, J.I. & Keil, R.G. 1995 Sedimentary organic-matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis. Mar. Chem. 49, 81-115. (doi:10.1016/0304-4203(95) 00008-F)

Hopkinson, C. S. & Vallino, J. J. 2005 Efficient export of carbon to the deep ocean through dissolved organic matter. Nature 433, 142-145. (doi:10.1038/nature03191) Houweling, S., Dentener, F., Lelieveld, J., Walter, B. & Dlugokencky, E. 2000 The modeling of tropospheric methane: how well can point measurements be reproduced by a global model? J. Geophys. Res. 105, 8981-9002. (doi:10.1029/1999JD901149) Howarth, R. W. 1988 Nutrient limitation of net primary production in marine ecosystems.

Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19, 89-110. (doi:10.1146/ Hudson, R. J. M. & Morel, F.M.M. 1989 Distinguishing between extra- and intracellular iron in marine phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1113-1120. Hughes, J. A., Smith, T., Chaillan, F., Bett, B. J., Billett, D. S. M., Boorman, B., Fisher, E. H., Frenz, M. & Wolff, G. A. 2007 Two abyssal sites in the Southern Ocean influenced by different organic matter inputs: environmental characterization and preliminary observations on the benthic foraminifera. Deep Sea Res. II54, 2275-2290. (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.06.006) Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Armstrong, R., Feely, R., Hood, R., Kleypas, J., Sabine, C. & Sarmiento, J. 2002 Progress made in study of ocean's calcium carbonate budget. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 83, 365. (doi:10.1029/2002E0000267) Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D. et al. 2008 Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world.

Science 320, 336-340. (doi:10.1126/science.1154122) IPCC 2001 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contributions of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Jahnke, R. A. 1996 The global ocean flux of particulate organic carbon: areal distribution and magnitude. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 71-88. (doi:10.1029/95GB03525) Jin, X. & Gruber, N. 2003 Offsetting the radiative benefit of ocean iron fertilization by enhancing N2O emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 4. (doi:10.1029/2003GL018458) Johnson, N. A., Campbell, J. W., Moore, T. S., Rex, M. A., Etter, R. J., McClain, C. R. & Dowell, M. D. 2007 The relationship between the standing stock of deep-sea macrobenthos and surface production in the western North Atlantic. Deep Sea Res. I 54, 1350-1360. (doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.04.011) Klaas, C. & Archer, D. E. 2002 Association of sinking organic matter with various types of mineral ballast in the deep sea: implications for the rain ratio. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 16, 1116. (doi:10.1029/2001GB001765) Knoll, A. H., Bambach, R. K., Payne, J. L., Pruss, S. & Fischer, W. W. 2007

Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass extinction. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 256, 295-313. (doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.02.018) Krauk, J. M., Villareal, T. A., Sohm, J. A., Montoya, J. P. & Capone, D. G. 2006 Plasticity of N:P ratios in laboratory and field populations of Trichodesmium spp. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 42, 243-253. (doi:10.3354/ame042255) Laes, A., Blain, S., Laan, P., Achterberg, E. P., Sarthou, G. & De Baar, H. J. W. 2003 Deep dissolved iron profiles in the eastern North Atlantic in relation to water masses. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1902. (doi:10.1029/2003GL017902) Lampitt, R. S., Bett, B. J., Kiriakoulakis, K., Popova, E. E., Ragueneau, O., Vangriesheim, A. & Wolff G. A. 2001 Material supply to the Abyssal seafloor in the Northeast Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr. 50, 27-63. (doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00047-7)

Leonardos, N. & Geider, R. J. 2005 Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases organic carbon fixation by Emiliania huxleyi Haptophyta, under nutrient-limited high-light conditions. J. Phycol. 41, 1196-1203. (doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00152.x) Levin, L. A., Etter, R. J., Rex, M. A., Gooday, A. J., Smith, C. R., Pineda, J., Stuart, C. T., Hessler, R. R. & Pawson, D. 2001 Environmental influences on regional deep-sea species diversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32, 51-93. (doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.32.081501.114002) Li, X. & Primeau, F. W. 2008 A fast Newton-Krilov solver for seasonally varying global ocean biogeochemistry models. Ocean Model. 23, 13-20. (doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.03.001) Lovelock, J. E. & Rapley, C. G. 2007 Ocean pipes could help the Earth to cure itself.

Nature 449, 403. (doi:10.1038/449403a) Lucas, M., Seeyave, S., Sanders, R., Moore, C.M., Williamson, R. & Stinchcombe, M. 2007 Nitrogen uptake responses to a naturally Fe-fertilised phytoplankton bloom during the 2004/2005 CROZEX study. Deep Sea Res. II54, 2138-2173. (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.06.017) Martin, J. H., Knauer, G. A., Karl, D. M. & Broenkow, W. W. 1987 VERTEX: carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific. Deep Sea Res. A. 34, 267-285. (doi:10.1016/0198-0149(87)90086-0) Measures, C. I., Landing, W. M., Brown, M. T. & Buck, C. S. 2008 High-resolution Al and Fe data from the Atlantic Ocean CLIVAR-CO2 repeat hydrography A16N transect: extensive linkages between atmospheric dust and upper ocean geochemistry. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 22, GB1005. (doi:10.1029/2007GB003042) Mills, C.E. 2001 Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia. 451, 55-68. (doi:10.1023/A:1011888006302) Mills, M. M., Ridame, C., Davey, M., La Roche, J. & Geider, R. J. 2004 Iron and phosphorus co-limit nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Nature 429, 292-294. (doi:10.1038/nature02550) Orr, J. C. et al. 2005 Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437, 681-686. (doi:10.1038/nature04095) Parekh, P., Follows, M. J. & Boyle, E. A. 2005 Decoupling of iron and phosphate in the global ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB2020. (doi:10.1029/2004GB002280) Peng, T. H. & Broecker, W. S. 1985 The utility of multiple tracer distributions in calibrating models for uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean thermocline. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 90, 7023-7035. (doi:10.1029/JC090iC04p07023) Piggott, M. D., Gorman, G. J., Pain, C. C., Allison, P. A., Candy, A. S., Martin, B. T. & Wells, M. R. 2008 A new computational framework for multi-scale ocean modelling based on adapting unstructured meshes. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids. 56, 1003-1015. (doi:10.1002/fld.1663) Pollard, R., Sanders, R., Lucas, M. & Statham, P. 2007 The CROzet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment CROZEX. Deep Sea Res. II54, 1905-1914. (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.07.023) Portner, H. O., Langenbuch, M. & Michaelidis, B. 2005 Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: from Earth history to global change. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 110, C09S10. (doi:10.1029/2004JC002561) Purcell, J.E., Uye, S. & Lo, W.-T. 2007 Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 350, 153-174. (doi:10.3354/meps07093)

Quack, B. & Wallace, D. W. R. 2003 Air-sea flux of bromoform: control rates and implications. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 17, 1023. (doi:10.1029/202GB001890) Raven, J. A. et al. 2005 Ocean Acidification due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon

Dioxide, Policy document no. 12/05. London: The Royal Society. Redfield, A. C. 1934 On the proportions of organic derivatives in sea water and their relation to the composition of plankton. In James Johnstone Memorial Volume. Liverpool, UK: University of Liverpool, pp. 176-192. Rees, A. P., Law, C. S. & Woodward, E. M. S. 2006 High rates of nitrogen fixation during an in-situ phosphate release experiment in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L10607-L10608. (doi:10.1029/2006GL025791) Rex, M. A. et al. 2006 Global bathymetric patterns of standing stock and body size in the deep-sea benthos. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 317, 1-8. (doi:10.3354/meps317001) Riebesell, U., Zondervan, I., Rost, B., Tortell, P. D., Zeebe, R. E. & Morel, F. M. M. 2000 Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 364-367. (doi:10.1038/35030078) Riebesell, U. et al. 2007 Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean.

Nature 450, 545-549. (doi:10.1038/nature06267) Riegman, R., Noordeloos, A. A.M. & Cadee, G.C. 1992 Phaeocystis blooms and eutrophication of the continental coastal zones of the North Sea. Mar. Biol. 112, 479-484. (doi:10.1007/BF00356293) Riemann, L., Steward, G.F. & Azam, F. 2000 Dynamics of bacterial community composition and activity during a mesocosm diatom bloom. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 578-587. (doi:10.1128/AEM.66.2.578-587.2000) Rowe, G. T. 1983 Biomass and production of the deep-sea macrobenthos. In The Sea, vol. 8, ed. G. T. Rowe. New York: Wiley Interscience, pp. 97-121. Sarmiento, J.L. & Gruber, N. 2002 Sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Phys. Today 55,

30-36. (doi:10.1063/1.1510279) Sarmiento, J.L., Murnane, R., Lequere, C., Keeling, R. & Williams, R. G. 1995 Air-sea CO2 transfer and the carbon budget of the north Atlantic. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 348, 211-219. (doi:10.1098/rstb. 1995.0063) Sarthou, G. et al. 2003 Atmospheric iron deposition and sea-surface dissolved iron concentrations in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Res. 150, 1339-1352. (doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(03)00126-2) Shepherd, J. G., Inglesias-Rodriguez, D. & Yool, A. 2007 Geo-engineering might cause, not cure, problems. Nature 449, 781. (doi:10.1038/449781a) Shoji, K. & Jones, I. S. F. 2001 The costing of carbon credits from ocean nourishment plants. Sci. Total Environ. 277, 27-31. (doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00832-4) Smythe-Wright, D., Boswell, S.M., Breithaupt, P., Davidson, R.D., Dimmer, C.H. & Eiras Diaz, L. 2006 Methyl iodide production in the ocean: implications for climate change. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 20, GB3003. (doi:10.1029/2005GB002642) Sokolova, M.N. 2000 Feeding and Trophic Structure of the Deep-Sea Macrobenthos.

Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Solomon, S., Garcia, R. R. & Ravishankara, A. R. 1994 On the role of iodine in ozone depletion. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20491-20499. (doi:10.1029/94JD02028) Stenseth, N. C., Mysterud, A., Ottersen, G., Hurrell, J. W., Chan, K.-S. & Lima, M. 2002 Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science 297, 1292-1296. (doi:10.1126/science.1071281) Stoll, H. M., Shimizu, N., Archer, D. & Ziveri, P. 2007 Coccolithophore productivity response to greenhouse event of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 258, 192-206. (doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.03.037)

Tappin, A. D. 2002 An examination of the fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in temperate and tropical estuaries: current estimates and uncertainties. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 55, 885-901. (doi:10.1006/ecss.2002.1034) Timmermans, K. R., Stolte, W. & de Baar, H. J. W. 1994 Iron-mediated effects on nitrate reductase in marine phytoplankton. Mar. Biol. 121, 389-396. (doi:10.1007/BF00346749) Tyrrell, T. 1999 The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production. Nature 400, 525-553. (doi:10.1038/22941) Tyrrell, T., Maranon, E., Poulton, A. J., Bowie, A. R., Harbour, D. S. & Woodward, E.M. S. 2003 Large-scale latitudinal distribution of Trichodesmium spp. in the Atlantic Ocean. J. Plankton Res. 25, 405-416. (doi:10.1093/plankt/25.4.405) Tyson, R. V. 1995 Sedimentary Organic Matter. London: Chapman and Hall. Underdal, B., Skulberg, O. M., Dahl, E. & Aune, T. 1989 Disastrous bloom of

Chrysochromulina polylepis (Prymnesiophyceae) in Norwegian coastal waters 1988: mortality in marine biota. Ambio 18, 265-270. UNEP 2004 GEO Yearbook 2003. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme.

Vogt, R., Sander, R., Glasow, R. V. & Crutzen, P. J. 1999 Iodine chemistry and its role in halogen activation and ozone loss in the marine boundary layer: a model study. J. Atmos. Chem. 32, 375-395. (doi:10.1023/A:1006179901037) Watson, A.J. 1997 Volcanic iron, CO2, ocean productivity and climate. Nature 385,

587-588. (doi:10.1038/385587b0) Weber, L., Volker, C., Schartau, M. & Wolf-Gladrow, D. A. 2005 Modeling the speciation and biogeochemistry of iron at the Bermuda Atlantic time-series study site. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1019. (doi:10.1029/2004GB002340) Weeks, S. J., Currie, B. & Bakun, A. 2002 Satellite imaging: massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic. Nature 415, 493-494. (doi:10.1038/415493b) Wigham, B. D., Hudson, I. R., Billett, D. S. M. & Wolff, G. A. 2003 Is long-term change in the abyssal Northeast Atlantic driven by qualitative changes in export flux? Evidence from selective feeding in deep-sea holothurians. Prog. Oceanogr. 59,409-441. (doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2003.11.003) Yool, A., Shepherd, J.G., Bryden, H.L. & Oschlies, A. 2009 Low efficiency of nutrient translocation for enhancing oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide. J. Geophys. Res. 114 C08009 (doi: 10.1029/2008JC004792) Yoshida, T., Hayashi, K. & Ohmoto, H. 2002 Dissolution of iron hydroxides by marine bacterial siderophore. Chem. Geol. 184, 1-9. (doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(01)00297-2) Zapata, F. & Roy, R. N. 2004 Use of Phosphate Rocks for Sustainable Agriculture, Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin no. 13. Rome: FAO Land and Water Development Division and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Zeebe, R. E. & Wolf-Gladrow, D. 2001 CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes.

Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier. Zhou, S. & Flynn, P. 2005 Geo-engineering downwelling ocean currents: a cost assessment. Clim. Change. 71, 203-220. (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-5933-0) Zondervan, I., Zeebe, R.E., Rost, B. & Riebesell, U. 2001 Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: a negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 15, 507-516. (doi:10.1029/2000GB001321)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment