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Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System

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acid gases, CO2, SO2, NO*, H2S 120 ocean, albedo control offers no change 247 rain 257, 280 acidification of oceans 18 adaptation 23, 43, 91 advection, semi-Lagrangian 213 aeroplanes as emissions source 108 aerosols aerosolized caustic droplets 121 cloud changes as indirect effect 253 formation of 86

from Mount Pinatubo eruption 279 increased planetary albedo 252 injected plume of 260 injection in aircraft jet exhaust 263 interaction with clouds 211 lateral dispersion of 223 layer of 6

microphysics of 260 quiescent injection plumes 261 radiative forcing 31 reflection as direct effect 253 residence time in stratosphere 252 residence time in troposphere 252 wings of deployment aircraft 300 agriculture climatic effects of 86 fertilizers leak into coastal seas 156 less polluting 21 livestock industry 153 air capture aqueous absorption 114 chemical separation 114 cryogenic separation 112 elevation of installation 119 energy integration and supply 116 free-standing systems 109 freezing and icing problems 119 gas centrifuges 113

hazards, birds, insects, leaves, etc. 120 industrial methods and scale 124, 127 membranes 113

negative CO2 emissions 125

operational and environmental constraints 117

physical separation 112

physisorption into liquid and solids 112, 113, 115 socio-political factors 109 sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions 111, 121 systems for 133 technologies 107 air molecules, mean free path of 256 albatross, high aspect-ratio wings 238 albedo change insensitive to salt mass 220 change with spraying rate 211, 233 cloud-by-cloud measurement 224 enhancement of clouds 13, 207-212 of ship tracks 210 planetary 85

ramifications of enhancement 222 range of clouds 208 algal blooms 17 alternative technologies 8 Amazon rainforest 71 ammonia, a recycled nutrient 150 Amsterdam Declaration (2001) 85 Antarctic fauna, whales, seals, penguins 197 Antarctic krill, as food base 197 anthropocentrists 22 anthropogenic aerosols 217 Anton Flettner, ships and Atlantic crossing 236 aqueous solutions with high pH 114 Arctic climate engineering 286-306 comparative simulations 293 ice cover preservation 235 ozone depletion 272 scenarios 14

summer sea ice 69, 287, 296, 297 Atmocean Inc, ocean pastures 86 atmosphere-ocean interface 13 atmospheric carbon dioxide 93, 127 atmospheric nuclear test ban 21 attractors, transients and bifurcations 56, 58 autocorrelation coefficient 50

autoregressive modelling 64-67 aviation 29

Bali UN conference (2007) 27, 104

Bangladesh 22

basin of attraction 59

Bennartz (2007), cloud drops 232

benthic ecosystems, dynamics of 170

bifurcation codimension 56, 59 fold 62

incipient 63-68 precursor of 51, 62

safe explosive and dangerous 57, 58, 61 subcritical and supercritical 61 theory 50, 51, 56-63 biofuels 10 biogeochemistry 12 biological productivity 12 biomass fuels 96, 127, 132

side effects, environmental, social, economic 131 biosphere carbon sinks 30 carbon storage 30 terrestrial and oceanic 194 boundary layer, turbulent 13 Broecker (1991), Earth as non-linear system 87 Budyko (1969), ice-water phase change 88 business-as-usual scenario 15, 22

Caldeira & Wood (2008), sulphur aerosols 230 carbon arbitrage, physical 108 budgets 28

capture and sequestration 10, 98, 107 capture and storage (CCS) xvi downward flux of ocean particles 153 effect of flux on oceanic species 195 feedback cycle 28, 30 flux from air to biosphere 131 footprint of OIF 192 market versus command-and-control 108 post-combustion capture 99, 107, 111 pre-combustion capture 99, 100 rapid build-up of gases 89 sinking export flux 152 sinking sequestration flux 152 sinks of 30, 31 trading market 162 carbon dioxide (CO2 ) acid gas 120

boundary layer diffusion 134 CO2 and CO2 e ambiguity 29 doubling of concentration 208, 287 emissions levels 450-650 ppmv 27, 46 energy and process implications 39 equivalent (written as CO2 e) 29 in sorbent liquid 118 increase greater than expected 287 oceanic sequestration of 10

price paid for capture xvi 'remove a ton a day' solid condensation 112 terrestrial deep sequestration of 10 carbon dioxide capture absorbing material for 110 commercial pilots 107 economics 107, 108 from atmosphere 107-123 physics 107, 109, 110 technical rationale for 107 technicalities 107 thermodynamics 107, 109, 110 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre

(CDIAC) 37 carbon sequestration 98, 101 by settling to deep water 152 via ocean fertilization carbon-neutral fuel, biomass and vehicles 125, 139 carbon-neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) 10,

127-139 carbon-rich detrital particles 150 carbonyl sulphide (OCS), precursor gas and its sources 254, 258 Carnot cycle engine 97 catalyst enzyme carbonic anhydrase 114 synthetic 114 catastrophe of environment and climate 9, 51 catastrophe theory 61 causticization process 133 CCN see cloud condensation nuclei CCS see carbon, capture and storage CFCs see chlorofluorocarbons chaos theory 55

Charlston etal. (1987), fractional cloud cover 233 chemical engineering 112, 124 multistep process 121 plants 10

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), climate impacts of 258

chlorophyll, biomass and standing stock 155, 186 clandestine weapon 7 climate modelling 50, 53 CLIMBER2 73 GENIE-1 66 IPCC reports 85 particle composition 299 placement in stratosphere 300 scattering of light 297 technical implementation 296, 297 ultraviolet and infrared scattering 298 with coupled chemistry 278 climate catastrophic change 9

change and policies for 20, 27, 29

computations, GCM 208

future events 51

modification non-linearities in 288

pre-industrial may not be optimal 302 proactive manipulation of 51 science from weather forecasting 85 sensitivity 29 system, non-linear 288 subsystems 53, 56

tipping point with catastrophic result 68, 302 cloud albedo boost by spray vessels 229-249 enhancement 13 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) 13, 209, 229 clouds cooling action 208 formation 86 locations for seeding 219 modelling 14 patchy nature 19 seeding marine 208 stratiform, marine 208 stratocumulus, marine 13, 209, 229 CNHCs see carbon-neutral hydrocarbons coal combustion and alternatives 95, 97 politics of 96 power generation 95 the industry 7

with integrated carbon capture 117 coal-fired plant 10 exhaust stream 111 pulverized 97 sub- and supercritical 98 ultra-supercritical 98 coastal upwelling due to global warming 191 coccolithophorids in ocean ecology 199 commercial vehicle fleet 144 commercialization of OIF 13 commodity pricing 21 companies producing prototypes consumption trends 18 cooling towers 118 Copenhagen conference (2009) 69 coral reefs at risk 287 correlation trail 29 cost-benefit analysis 8-9 costing by engineering firms 124 costs carbon-neutral energy, 2 per cent of our income 303

electricity from coal 102 transportation and storage 103 crops for fuel 87

Crutzen (2006), Nobel Laureate 9 cure worse than the disease 20

Daisyworld model 88 data assimilation 64, 78 deforestation 28, 32 desertification of Africa 74-76 detrended fluctuation analysis 66 diatoms accumulation of biomass 195

assemblage in sediments 196 biology of species 194 blooms of 186 dominance 199 flora of iron-rich margins 195 in phytoplankton blooms 182 species morphology 195 diesel replaced by dimethylether (DME) 135 dimethylether (DME) replacing diesel 135 dimethylsulphide (DMS), climate gas 191 dimming, global 89 distributions, temporal and spatial 64 DME see dimethylether DMS see dimethylsulphide drag coefficients, negative 238 driving forces, external stimuli 55 droplets doubling of concentration 209 effective radius 214 fractional change in clouds 232 lifetime of, 1-5 days 232, 233 dynamic jump and hysteresis 62 dynamical system 55-56 as a flow 63 as a map 63 non-linear 78

Earth as living organism 87 as non-linear system 87 as physiological system 84 as self-regulating system 84 in homeostasis 18, 90 IPCC on rapid surface warming 287 science of 85 system as Gaia 91 ecology and ecosystems 8, 79 economic orthodoxy, global 46 economics 23, 131

of carbon-neutral hydrocarbons 136 effluent plume 120

El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 70 electric power plants 107 electric vehicles 10 electricity from coal, cost of 102 electrodialysis emissions budgets 27 cap 47

CO2e in, twenty-first century 37 cumulative 27 data 30

greenhouse gases 95 growth by, 3% 9 managing 124 non-CO2 aviation 31 pathways 27 power station 93-103 reduction 27, 28, 36, 98 stabilization 27 trends 27-44

energy big changes needed in system 251 crops 132

efficiency measures 96 emissions 32

production with less pollution 21 resources 86 energy-efficient technologies 21 ensembles of initial conditions 53 ENSO see El Nino Southern Oscillation Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 34 Eocene start-up 89

EPA see Environmental Protection Agency ethics of geoengineering 18, 90-92 European Commission (AD700) programme 98 exhausted oil and gas wells 102 experiments in situ for OIF 194 in the field and costs 12, 172 large-scale oceanic 174, 193 LOHAFEX for OIF 196 media interest in large scale 199 mesocosms in containers 171 expert witness 7 external energy inputs 132 extinction of species 91

feedbacks, positive and negative 17, 30, 51, 88, 166 ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) as iron into ocean 192 from titanium industry 192 in garden shops for lawns 187 injections 183

released into propeller wash 192 unwanted by-product 192 use in iron fertilization 187 weakly acidic 192 field experiment with limited cloud area 225 fire as biocide for clearance 85 for cooking 84 fisheries, 1.3 billion dependent people 166 fleet of wind-driven spray vessels 230 Flettner rotor design of spray vessel 243 first ship (Buckau renamed Baden-Baden) 236 for ship propulsion 229 ship orders and building of Barbara 236 ship project by Enercon 237 food synthesis 87 forcing, negative 211 forests carbon stocks 33 clearance 86

conversion to farm land 84 fossil fuels 93 fuel cycle 130 fuels delivered 128 fossil 93

gasoline and diesel as people's choice 136

options, hydrogen, ethanol, electricity 128 synthetic via hydrogenation 134

Gaia, Lovelock's Earth system 91 gasification of coal 114 GCM see global climate models geo-engineering as least evil 9

climate response to aerosols 266 costs and benefits 287 debate 8

financial and political issues 252 folklore 5

for rapid deployment xv legal, moral, ethical issues 84-92, 252 less risky than doing nothing xv ocean fertilization 149-167 geological storage 130 geological timescales 56 geophysiologist's thoughts 84-92 geophysiology 87-90 geosocial engineering 22 glacial-interglacial climate cycles, iron concentrations 188 glaciation, global 74-76 glasshouses 156

Glauert (1957), torsional drag 245 global climate engineering 286-306 global climate models (GCM) 29, 213 global warming 229

may persist for centuries 287 possibly irreversible xv Global Research Technologies (GRT) 115 Global Thermostat company 116 Great Wall of China 11 greenhouse gases emissions and essential reductions 95, 280 concentrations 27, 28 in climate simulations 291 greenhouse-icehouse tipping point 50, 76 Greenland ice sheet and its possible collapse 70, 287 Greenland, ice-core data 53 Gulf Stream 5

halogens in the stratosphere 274 haptophyte flagellates in ocean ecology 199 Hardin (1968), 'The tragedy of the commons' 91 Henderson-Sellers & McGuffie (2005), ice models 88 hierarchy of anthropogenic climate forcing indicators 19 Higgins & Schrag (2006), Eocene start-up 89 high-nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions 184 Hippocratic oath 91

HNLC see high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll Holocene and last glacial maximum 194, 196 homeostasis of the Earth 18, 90 Houghton (2004), cloud nuclei lifetime 233 human conflict, potential for 20 human rights and obligations 92 hydro power 96

hydrogen as a fuel 10 carbon-free 128 for transportation 138 from coal 100 storage 129 hysteresis and dynamic jumps 58, 62, 88

ice albedo feedback 88 modelling 88 icebergs, avoidance by spray ships 234 ice-core records for iron 159, 188 ice-water phase change 88 IGCC see integrated gasification combined cycle imperfection sensitivity 62 India summer monsoon 70 industrial facilities and processes, emissions 32, 108

initial conditions, sensitivity and ensembles 55 insolation reduction 15, 287

proactive scattering in stratosphere 287 top of atmosphere 289 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) using syngas 100

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission 13 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports (1995, 2007) 8, 51, 251 emission level of 450 ppmv 43 marker scenarios 15, 287 international consensus and cooperation 15, 303 international scientific community 153 ion exchange membrane 115

IPCC see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change iron atmosphere/ocean dust transport 165 cycling, physiological models 161 limitation 184

nutrient in ocean fertilization to ocean via rivers and sediments 165 iron fertilization see ocean iron fertilization iron hypothesis see ocean iron fertilization iron-induced blooms, grazing on 197 iron sulphate see ferrous sulphate irrigation 5

Kafka-like world 91

Kellogg & Schneider (1974), climate tampering 7 kilns 133

Kraft pulping in paper making 115 krill-based Southern Ocean ecosystem 13 Kyoto Protocol 69

Lagrange point 16

laminar flow in CO2 capture 109, 110

land use and clearance 30, 84, 132

large eddy simulation (LES) 222

Latham et al. (2008), albedo enhancement 229

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 114

Lenton (2006), climate change review 85

Lenton's tipping elements 68-71

lift coefficients, improved by multiple discs 238

liquefied gas processing 112

liquid hydrocarbon fuels 10

liquid water path (LWP) 214

LNLC see low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll local decay rate as instability precursor 51, 62, 64 as sensitivity indicator 68 long-wave radiation 208, 223 Lovelock & Kump (1994), zero-dimensional model 88

Lovelock & Rapley (2007), pipes in ocean 86 Lovelock

Earth as living organism 87 Gaia hypothesis 17 large pipes in the ocean 17 low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (LNLC) regions 161 LWP see liquid water path

Magnus effect, spinning cylinders give lift 236

Malthus, population warning 90

man versus climate 4

marine boundary layer (MBL) 208

marine technology 96

Marples' Claudia, sea-going Flettner yacht 238

Martin, iron fertilization hypothesis 86, 181, 182

MBL see marine boundary layer medicine, planetary 90

meteorology 208

methane (CH4) 35, 190

from melting Siberian permafrost 235 production 191 methanol 113

micro-nozzle, clogging of 241 microwave transmission efficiency 16 mitigation, technology and policies 9, 141 Mittal & Kumar (2003), spinning cylinder 238 model and simulate approach 53 modelling 50-83

climate engineering 15, 286-306 clouds, sensitivity studies 208 effect of geoengineering on climate 270 evolution of sulphate aerosols 267 global circulation models 156 large eddy simulation (LES) 222 ocean fertilization 173 oceans and sea shelf 157 simulation of climate 288-289 monoethanolamine (MEA) 99 monsoons, effect of geoengineering 272 Montreal Protocol on ozone-depletion 21 Morton (2007), Eating the Sun 84

NASA (1997), Fresh Look Study 16 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 288

natural sinks 30 nature-centrics 22

NCAR see National Center for Atmospheric Research Newton's laws 55

Nightingale & Liss (2003), clouds and aerosols 86

nitrogen conversion from atmosphere to urea 157 fixation by cyanobacteria 155 nitrous oxide (N2O) 35, 190 atmospheric concentration 191 climatic feedback 190 non-linear increase 191 production by hypoxia 191 non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions 34 Northern Boreal forest 71

NOj (nitrogen oxides NO and NO2) see nitrous oxide nuclear energy, misplaced fears 87 non-proliferation treaty 21 power and heat 95, 103, 117 nutrients biological pump of 174 limiting 185 resources 86

ocean acidification 15, 18, 303

ocean acidity, albedo control offers no change 247

ocean coverage of Earth's surface 86

ocean ecology coccolithophorids 199 conveyor belt 53 haptophyte flagellates 199 observational to experimental 187 ocean iron fertilization (OIF) 12, 13, 86, 149-167, 181, 189 commercialisation 182 efficiency 159

experiments, real and artificial 159, 181-204 'half a tanker full of iron' 160 in LNLC and HNLC regions 159, 161 iron hypothesis 184, 188, 193 macronutrients from deep ocean 158 meddling with nature 181 naturally occurring 159 nutrient deficiency 150 nutrients from land 156 particle flux 194 productivity proxies 189 use of ferrous sulphate 187 ocean fertilization side effects 162-170 eutrophication and anoxia 163 generation of climate gasses 166 global iron balance 165 global macronutrients 165 oceanic pH 164 pelagic ecosystem 166 oceanic biological and solubility pumps 150 oceanic mixing layer 159 oceanic nutrients cycles 156

macro- and micro-scales 153 Redfield ratio 154 supply routes 153 oceanic organisms, calcifying, non-calcifying 152 oceanic sediments, burial in 188 OCS see carbonyl

OECD nations 32

Olf see ocean iron fertilization oil price fluctuations 137 recovery, enhanced 109 optical depth of scattering material 301 organic carbon, sinking of overshoot of emission peaks 31 oxy-fuel combustion 99, 100 oxygen depletion 191 ozone (O3 ) depetion 9, 21 in Arctic 272

in polar stratospheric clouds 272 in polar vortex 274 increased UV radiation 278 WACCM study 275

Padrino & Joseph (2006), torsional drag 245 paleoclimate data 50 Palmer (Tim), ensemble techniques 56 particulates, suspended 120 performance standards, mandatory 23 phase space in non-linear dynamics 55 phosphate-bearing rocks, mining of 157 photosynthesizers 84 phytoplankton absorber of CO2 150 assemblage 197 biomass build-up 186 blooms 13, 182

iron demands in coast and ocean 185 pilot-scale process development 124 Pinatubo, Mount, volcanic eruption 257, 272, 300

aerosols from 279 pipes in the ocean 17, 86 plankton, ecology of 183 plant growth boosted by CO2 303 polar regions, high sensitivity of 278 polar stratospheric clouds, ozone depletion in 272 population densities 119 planning 21 trends 18

warning of Malthus 90 power advanced cycles 99 most efficient plant 101 sources, wind, solar, hydro 96 spectrum 64

station emissions 93-103 precautionary principle 22 primary gas separation, design for 112 primary production and remineralization 188 proxies, interpretation for OIF 194 public-private partnerships 23

radiation incoming solar (insolation) 14 pressure 16 radiative balance in atmosphere 12 radiative forcing and effect of geoengineering 31, 287

Rahmsdorf (2007), climate changing faster 85 Ramanathan (2007), global dimming 89 Rankine cycle 135

Rasch et al. (2008), sulphur aerosols 230 Redfield stoichiometry 158 Rees (2003), The Final Century 91 Reid (1924), wind tunnel tests on rotors 237 renewable technologies 96

research and development (R&D) needed 23, 166, 170 risk, aversion and proneness 22 road transportation, distributed 138 Roger Angel (2006), space sunshade 15, 16 rotors, wind tunnel tests 237

Sahara/Sahel and West African monsoon 54, 71 Scandinavia 5

scenario for six greenhouse gases 31 Schlichting (1979), Bernoulli suction 243 Schwarz & Slingo (1996), anthropogenic aerosols 230 sea ice, including permeability and thermodynamic model 14, 79, 293 sea temperature, influence on world climate 247 seasonal cloud variability 221 seawater aerosol droplets 208, 209

micron-sized 13 sequestration, deep ocean and sites 13, 108 ship engines, exhaust trails 230 shipping, and avoidance by spray ships 29, 234 short-wave solar radiation 208

sinks, natural 30 smelting bronze and iron 84 snow and rain precipitation 295 socio-politics of air capture 109 sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 133

periodically pulsed 119 solar furnaces for calcinations 116 solar power 96, 116

space-based (SSP) 16 solubility pump, physical 188 soot in lower atmosphere 19 Southern Ocean (SO) 183

fertilization experiments 181-204 southern right whales, endangered species 199 Soviet Union's economy 45 space sunshade 15, 16 spinning cylinder, lift forces on 237 sprays generation techniques 241 residues dispersed by turbulence 232 spray vessels fleet needed 230, 246 project costs 245 remotely controlled 235

spraying rate and albedo change 211, 212, 229-249 wind driven 229 SSP see solar power, space-based statistical rank tests 67 status quo, maintenance of 8 steam gasification 140 Stern Review (2006) 30 on peak emissions 44

on stabilization trajectories 44 stoichiometry, Redfield 158 stratosphere aerosols 14

eventual descent of sulphate particles 300 particles 6

sulphate aerosols 250-254 sub-Saharan Africa 22 sulphate aerosols

1 million delivery flights 259 delivery by aircraft 259 delivery in jet exhaust 259 from volcanic eruptions 252 in lower atmosphere 19 jet-fighter-sized aircraft 259 lifetime in troposphere 255 modelling evolution of 267 natural in stratosphere 252, 253 role of particle size 269 sulphur compounds added to aircraft fuel 263 cycle in the stratosphere 267 sources and sinks in troposphere 254 sulphur dioxide (SO2), non-linear interactions 256 sulphuric acid (H2SO4) condensed in stratosphere 255

injections 22 Sun cooler in ancient times 89 intensity in southern hemisphere 220 synthesis gas (syngas) 100

technological lock-in 128 temperature physiological regulation 89 stabilization, global 207, 208 thresholds (2°C, 4°C) 27, 28, 47 THC see thermohaline circulation thermal process 133 thermodynamics in carbon dioxide capture 107 separation energy 110 thermohaline circulation (THC) 70 box models 73 shut-down 71-74 Thom (1934), multiple rotor discs 238 Thomas (1983), The Youngest Science 90 Thompson & Stewart (2002), non-linear dynamics 56 tidal power 96

time horizons, ethical and political 69 time-series analysis 53, 63-68

detrending, interpolation and windows 65 moving window 66 propagators 53, 65 tipping elements of Lenton 68-71 policy-relevant 68 tipping points of the climate 51, 68, 71-76 ancient 76-78

B0lling-Allerod transition 54 desertification of North Africa 54, 71 end of glaciations 54

tipping points of the climate (cont. ) end of greenhouse Earth 54 end of Younger Dryas 54 prediction of 50-83 titanate-based hydroxide regeneration 121 transients with critical slowing 63 transport sector and its emissions 10, 127, 134, 251 tree planting 86

tri-link mechanism for uneven loads 243 Tripati & Elderfield (2005), Eocene start-up 89 turbulent boundary layer 13

Twomey effect, increased albedo of clouds 209, 229

ultra-filtration to prevent sprays clogging 241 ultrasonic excitation to reduce drop size 241 upwelling and downwelling in physical pump 188 urban environment 85 US Congress 8

US National Research Council 8

vegetation, take-up rate 30 vehicles, electric and hydrogen-on-board 143, 145 fuel options, electricity, biofuels, hydrogen 125 volcanic ejections of sulphur into stratosphere 252, 256

Mount Pinatubo 272

WACCM see Whole Atmosphere Chemistry Climate Model wars and ideological disputes 21 Watson & Lovelock (1983), Daisyworld model 88

Watson (1997), iron fertilization 86

wave power pump for deep nutrients 158

wells (oil and gas), exhausted 102

West Antartic ice sheet 70

whale population recovery 198

Whole Atmosphere Chemistry Climate Model

(WACCM) 273 wildlife habitat protection 21 wind power 96 wind turbine spacing 134 windmills 118

wind-scrubbing devices (artificial trees) world economic development 7 world energy consumption 95

Younger Dryas, end tipping point 50, 77

zooplankton communities 187 faecal pellets 196 predators of 199

Plate 1 (Fig. 2.3) Greenhouse gas emission scenarios for AB1 with emissions peaking in (a) 2015, (b) 2020 and (c) 2025.

Na2C03"10H20(8) séparation / wash gystallizer/leaching

Na2C03"10H20(8) séparation / wash gystallizer/leaching

Plate 2 (Fig. 6.1) Flowsheet of a NaOH-titanate-based air-capture process. The kiln is depicted with a CO2 recycle loop which may or may not be used depending on the kiln configuration. The red and blue arrows show major points of heat addition or subtraction (Mahmoudkhani and Keith, 2009).

Plate 3 (Fig. 8.1) Global annual minimum distribution of surface concentrations of nitrate, one of the principal macronutrients limiting primary production (Levitus World Ocean Atlas 1994).

Plate 4 (Fig. 8.2) Distribution of phosphate from south to north in the Pacific along 170° W showing the near-surface depletion and increase in concentration with depth.

Plate 5 (Fig. 8.4) Annual average surface nitrate showing the locations of iron experiments referred to in Boyd et al. (2007); red, natural Fe studies; white, Fe addition experiments; green, Fe+P addition experiments.

Plate 6 (Fig. 10.1) Five-year mean distributions of cloud-top effective radius reff (|im) in all regions of marine stratocumulus. (a) Control and (b) with N = 375 cm-3 in regions of low-level maritime cloud.

Plate 7 (Fig. 10.2) Five-year mean distributions of LWP (gm 2). (a) Control and (b) with N = 375 cm-3 in regions of low-level maritime cloud.

SO -40 - 30 -20 -10 0 10 20 JO

Plate 8 (Fig. 10.3) Five-year mean difference AF (Wm-2) in radiative forcing between the control simulation and that in which N = 375 cm-3 in regions of low-level maritime cloud.

longitude
longitude

Plate 9 (Fig. 10.4) Annual average of (a) short-wave cloud forcing (SWCF) of the control simulation, (b) short-wave cloud forcing difference (ASWCF) between a geo-engineering experiment by setting the cloud drop concentration to 375 cm-3 and the control simulation, and (c) ASWCF between a geo-engineering experiment by setting the cloud drop concentration to 1000 cm-3 and the control simulation. For the purpose of this study, we only plot results over the ocean surface.

Plate 10 (Fig. 11.1) Demonstration of the Twomey effect. The photograph is a NASA satellite image of ship tracks over the Bay of Biscay. It was images such as this that triggered the Twomey work.

Plate 11 (Fig. 11.4) Results of a parameter combination based on a set of selection criteria of sunshine, initial CCN concentration, cloud cover and wind speed for four quarters of 2001 from Sortino (2006). Red is best but yellow is fine. Seasonal migration is indicated, (a) January-March, (b) April-June, (c) July-September and (d) October-December.

Plate 12 (Fig. 12.4) (a-c) Examples of distribution of the geo-engineering aerosol

for June, July and August from a 20-year simulation for a 2Tg S yr-1 emission. The white contour in (a) shows the region where temperatures fall below 194.5 K, and indicates approximately where ozone depletion may be important.

4 -3 -2 -1 -0.5 0.5 1 2 3 4

Plate 13 (Fig. 12.5) (a, b) The surface temperature difference from present day during June, July and August with the 2 x CO2 simulation and the geo-engineering simulation using 2 Tg S yr-1 emission (which is not sufficient to entirely balance the greenhouse warming).

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Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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