We have introduced a methodology for a systematic comparison of solutions to greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. We focused on solutions built around the concept of CNHCs and compared these against the production and distribution of hydrogen for consumption in the transportation sector. We find that CNHCs may be a cost-effective way to introduce hydrogen into the transportation infrastructure in a gradual manner. The continued use of liquid hydrocarbon fuels will minimize the disruptions and delays caused by requiring a different transportation infrastructure. It is far from evident, however, that any of these solutions, including electric vehicles, will be the method of choice. The lack of a clear technological 'winner' warrants equal attention and funding on all potential solutions.

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