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Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

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The Keys to a Great Compost

This informative eBook demonstrates the best ways to compost in order to improve your garden, make your vegetables and fruits taste better, and help save the soil and the environment. Over 20% of landfills are simply kitchen waste that could easily be recycled Why waste what you already produce? You have an easy source of organic health for your own garden at home, without having to spend large amounts of money in order to make really healthy soil. With today's composting technology, you can compost as much as suits your needs! If that is a little compost for a small home garden or a large plot that you grow food for your family or business, composting will be an easy and cheap way to improve the quality of your soil and thus your vegetables as well! This guide shows you every method of composting; from free methods you can do with no extra money all the way to elaborate by easy to set up composting rigs. Improve the environment, and get better tasting food!

The Keys to a Great Compost Summary

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Duane Palmer
Price: $28.00

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Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

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Generalized Composting Process

Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. The decomposition is performed primarily by facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and also helped in the cooler initial and ending phases by a number of larger organisms, such as ants, nematodes, and oligochaete worms. Composting recycles organic household and yard waste and manures into a useful humus-like, soil end-product called compost. Ultimately, this permits the return of needed organic matter and nutrients into the foodchain. Composting can significantly reduce the amount of biowaste going into burgeoning landfills. The decomposition process is a result of raised temperatures. The elevated heat results from exothermic processes, and the heat in turn reduces the generational time of microorganisms and thereby speeds the energy and nutrient exchanges taking place. Although it would be very difficult to find a universally accepted definition of composting, Haug...

Maturity of Composting Products

The Composting Council of Canada (http compost.org pdf sheet_4.PDF) defines the compost maturity as following (the guidelines for that are shown in Table 12.3) Compost maturity was chosen as one of the parameters for determining the grade of compost in Canada because it is so important to product performance. Immature compost may stunt, damage, or even kill plants, rather than enhancing their growth. Maturity is not related to quality, but to what stage in the composting process the material has progressed. Mature compost is material in which biological activity has been slowed. All of the easily degraded molecules have been broken down, leaving the complex organic material behind. It is difficult to identify the original feedstock materials. A fine texture, dark color, and a rich earthy smell often characterize mature composts. As organic material composts, large complex molecules are broken down in a series of steps. The final products are simple, stable molecules, which make up the...

Theoretical Aspects Of Composting

The Composting Process

For the best results in a composting process, it is important to have appropriate mixing of sludge cake with bulking agents and recycled materials. For the process to operate in good condition, it needs to have the optimum mass balance, moisture, temperature, pH, nutrients, and air. Figure 7.11 shows a mass balance diagram that can be used for all three composting systems windrow, aerated static pile, and in-vessel. In the diagram A' weight of ready compost in one day A weight of recycled compost in one day B weight of dewatered sludge in one day D weight of a mixture of dewatered sludge, bulking agent, recycled bulking agent, and recycled compost in one day C 1 , C2 , C3 , C4 concentration ( ) of dry solids in dewatered sludge, recycled compost, composting mixture, and bulking agents, respectively Or1, Or2, Or3, Or4 concentration ( ) of organics in dewatered sludge, recycled compost, composting mixuture, and bulking agents, respectively The quantity of mixture being composted is...

Process Description 721 Factors Influencing Composting

Bio Solids Affect The Local Populations

Composting represents the combined activity of a succession of mixed populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi at different stages of the process. The principal factors that affect the biology of composting are moisture, temperature, pH, nutrient concentration, and oxygen supply. Moisture Decomposition of organic matter depends on moisture. Less than 40 moisture may limit the rate of decomposition. The optimum moisture content is 50 to 60 . Moisture content is also important for the structural integrity and sufficient porosity of the composting pile. If the initial compost mixture has more than 60 moisture, proper structural integrity will not be achieved and the mixture will not decompose well. Dewatered municipal sludges are usually 18 to 35 solids (65 to 82 moisture), depending on the type of dewatering equipment used. Such sludge cakes are too wet for composting. Mixing the cake with a dry bulking material can reduce the moisture content of the sludge cake. Table 7.1 lists...

Composting process characters

Composting is a technology for the treatment of organic residues using aerobic bioprocesses. Organic material, which consists of sugar, starch, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, and a lignin like fraction, is fully or partly decomposed by different kinds of micro-organisms which act in a complicated metabolic pathway. The result of the composting process is compost. It mainly consists of those organic waste components which are not or only partly used by the microbial metabolism, as well as of components which are formed in the longer term during the so-called maturation processes. The compost is used as fertilizer in agriculture. Benefits arise from the nutrient content of the compost, like salts of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrate. But it is even more important that the organic matter in the compost, such as humus like substances, improve the concentration of organic matter in the soil and its structure, and preserve soil fertility over a long period. Sources of compost are wastes from...

Examples Of Composting In The United States

Aerated Static Pile Composting

In the United States, studies of windrow and aerated static pile composting were conducted in the mid-1970s in Beltsville, Maryland, and in Carson, California. As of 2003, there were more than 200 wastewater sludge composting facilities in the United States. Most of the composting facilities are aerated static pile systems, and some are in-vessel systems. Windrow composting is rarely used because of the potential odor generation and the large area requirement. The city of Eustis, Florida, uses the windrow process for composting aerobically digested sludge. The dewatered sludge cake of 12 to 14 solids mixed with wood chips at the ratio of 1 2 by volume is formed into windrow piles by a front-end loader on paved surface. The pile is mixed using a windrow machine every day for three to five days until the temperature reaches 55 C. The temperature is maintained between 55 and 65 C for 15 days, during which time the pile is turned about five times. The composting process takes about three...

Carbon sequestration by compost application

Compost is applied in agriculture to improve soil fertility by means of the supply of mineral fertilizers, such as potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Moreover, the input of compost strongly influences the soil carbon storage which is also an important factor of soil fertility. This is due to the fact that composting partly results in the increased formation of stable carbon compounds, i.e. humus-like substances and aggregates. These are made of complex compounds that render them resistant to microbial attack. The input of organic matter is especially important in such a case where an intensive cultivation of soil results in its degradation, since decomposition rates and removal of carbon by the crops are not well balanced by inputs. By adding compost an input of new organic matter takes place, so that the soil carbon level is restored. In this case compost nitrogen stimulates soil productivity which results in the higher volume of crop residues. Other compost components may have a...

Composting Process Control

Temperature Control Wastewater

Experiments show that the type and population of microorganisms varies during the composting process. It is therefore critical to control the composting environment so that the microorganisms can flourish. The composting environment parameters include the compost pile temperature, moisture content of the compost, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the compost pile, and the availability of nutrients, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for the microorganisms. These parameters must be monitored, as they affect the vitality of the microorganisms. The temperature in the compost pile affects most directly the types of microorganisms and their functions. The type of microorganism changes as the compost pile temperature increases from its initial temperature to the mesophilic (25 to 40 C) phase, to the thermophilic (55 to 65 C) phase, and to the slow decrease in temperature following completion of the composting process. Experiments show that the thermophilic phase must be...

Examples Of Composting In Europe

Apocalypse Meme

Several examples of different types of composting systems that have been in use in Europe are described below. All these systems are open-air processes, mostly on asphalt pavements. In Finland, two wastewater treatment plants (city of Lappeenranta and city of Loensiy) compost sludge mixed with ground bark as the bulking agent at a ratio of 1 1 by volume in 3-m-high windrow piles. Every three weeks, piles are shoveled over by scoop loader. After two weeks of processing the temperature rises to 50 C, and after three to four weeks it rises to 60 C. Duration of composting during summer is four to six months. Cured compost has a moisture content of 40 to 60 (Paatero and Lehtokori, 1984). The wastewater treatment plant in Blua, France, has composted digested dewatered sludge with sawdust at the ratio of 1 3 by volume. Windrow piles 1.5 to 2 m high and 4 to 5 m wide were formed and turned frequently by special machines two to five times a week during the first three weeks. The machines...

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are three main types of composting technology the windrow system, the static pile system, and the in-vessel system.

Use of composting CO2 as greenhouse fertilizer

If compost born CO2 could be applied in production processes instead of fossil derived carbon dioxide, a net reduction of the GHG balance would be possible. As was mentioned a total of about 150 kg CO2 is emitted per ton of compost raw material. Thus in a facility with a capacity of 100,000 t annually, about 15,000 t of carbon dioxide are produced. In Germany CO2 from composting totals about one Mio t of carbon dioxide, which could be used instead of fossil derived CO2 in industrial or related processes. A sensible use of compost born carbon dioxide is its application in greenhouses where crops are fertilized by CO2 which improves the yields by about 30-40 percent through a CO2 input of 100 t per hectare annually. Conventionally CO2 is from gas burners or is industrially produced. If compost CO2 was used by a medium sized composting facility, an area of about 150 hectares could be fully supplied. As another advantage the residues from the greenhouse crop can be applied as raw material...

Composting Products and Maturity 1241 Agronomic Value of Composting Products

Compost contains high portions of the humus-C, the portion of carbon that contributes to the humus reproduction. It accounts for 51 of the total organic carbon and is therewith higher than in any other humus fertilizer. Compared with compost, straw and liquid manure contain 21 carbon and green-fertilizers contain only 14 . The effectiveness on the humus reproduction with compost is by factor 4 higher than with straw and by factor 20 higher than with liquid manure (Kehres 2008). This fact is very relevant from the view of sustainable agriculture, because agriculture cultivation is connected with losses of humus-C in the soils and the fertilization with compost could compensate it. Organic material and their decomposition products can reduce P fixation in soils by the complexation of Al and Fe by organic acids, by the competition between organic acids and orthophosphate for adsorption sites and release of P by organic material during decomposition (Mnkeni and MacKenzie 1985 Sibanda and...

NMR Spectra of Initial Soils and Composts Before Amendments

Mvb Pathwy

The 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of compost used for field treatments in the three experimental sites are shown in Fig. 4.1, whereas the relative distribution of signal areas is reported in Table 4.9. Since compost samples had a common origin, a similar C distribution was found in NMR spectra. The spectra of mature composts were dominated by the alkyl-C (0-45 ppm) and O-alkyl-C (60-110 ppm) signals. The alkyl-C region comprised a prominent peak at around 30 ppm, mostly due to methylene carbon chains (CH2)n and terminal methyl groups in plant lipid compounds, such as waxes and aliphatic biopolyesters. Fig. 4.1 C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of the mature compost materials used for soil treatments at Torino, Piacenza, and Napoli Fig. 4.1 C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of the mature compost materials used for soil treatments at Torino, Piacenza, and Napoli Table 4.9 Relative distribution ( ) of signal area over chemical shift regions (ppm) in 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of compost samples used for field treatments Table...

Zoological Characteristics of Compost

Compost has the ability to enrich soil with beneficial invertebrates that stimulate the growth of soil organisms. The zoological population influences the physical, chemical, and microbial factors in soil. Some zoological populations in the mixture of sludge, bulking agent, and amendment survive the composting process. They penetrate the compost pile when temperature decreases to 30 to 35 C during the cooling stage. When the compost is stored, the zoological populations increase. The number of species in the cured compost can increase to more than 200. Some scientists are of the opinion that by determining the zoological population in the compost, one can predict how much biological activity occurs in the soil when the compost is applied to the soil.

Comparison Of Thermal Drying And Composting

In recent years, thermal drying and composting have become useful technologies for the preparation of class A biosolids. Let us examine three sludge-processing schemes, shown in Figure 9.4, to compare the heat consumption of these two technologies. Let the quantity of raw primary and thickened activated sludge be 800 m3 d with 4 dry solids. Scheme 2 The quantity of organics reduced during composting process averages about 25 , but for digested sludge, with the reduced quantity of organics, it can be just 10 . For primary sludge, the reduction is more than 45 , and for activated sludge it is about 30 to 35 . Let us assume that the reduction of organics during composting of the mixture of raw primary and activated sludge is 35 . Then the quantity of reduced heat released from composting (7840kg d)(21 MJ kg) Scheme 3 The quantity of organics reduced during composting of digested sludge is 10 , which is (28 kg m3)(40 )(10 ) 1.1 kg m3, where 40 is the organics reduced in digestion....

GHG sources in composting

Composting may result in emissions from various sources, such as biogenic processes during composting, collection and transportation of the raw material and the compost, the application of compost in agriculture. Emissions from the process itself mainly consist of carbon dioxide which is the result of the aerobic decomposition. Depending on the type of raw material, the duration of the composting process, as well as other bioprocess characteristics, different amounts of CO2 are emitted per ton of composted raw material. Because CO2 in this case is biogenic in origin, this emission is not counted in greenhouse gas inventories. Nevertheless capturing of emitted CO2 and its use instead of carbon dioxide from fossil sources will improve the anthropogenic greenhouse gas balance (see chapter 12.3.4). In a well-managed composting process, CO2 is the only process gas. If aeration in the compost heap is poor, or the material is too wet, an anaerobic situation may occur, which is accompanied by...

Microbiological Aspects of Composting

Composting is a biological process mediated by microbes belonging to the kingdom Protest, which includes bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, and virus particles (Table 12.2). Microbes can be classified into metabolic types based on the carbon and energy sources utilized by the cell. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide as a Table 12.2 Microbial populations during aerobic composting (in Poincelot 1977) Table 12.2 Microbial populations during aerobic composting (in Poincelot 1977) No. Wet gram compost Lemunier et al. (2005) resulted that biowaste compost may support long-term survival of Salmonella serovar Enteridits when sanitation has been unsatisfactory during the thermophilic phase or in the case of colonization during storage of mature compost. Mature biowaste compost did not allow L. monocytogenes survival and also for Escherichia coli only a short survival time was observed. However, this study showed that management of the maturation phase is critical for limiting hazards associated with...

Biochemical Aspects of Composting

The composting mass is at ambient temperature, but a rapid rise occurs as the microorganism multiply. When the temperature moves above 40 C, the mesophilic stage is replaced by the thermophilic stage. The time required to reach the thermophilic stage varies, but it is frequently achieved in 2 or 3 days (Olds 1968). The temperature stabilizes around 70 C, followed by a gradual cooling to ambient temperature. This temperature pattern has been observed by many investigators for typical garden compost as well as for municipal compost (Webley 1947 Kortleven 1951 Eastwood 1952 Chang and Hudson 1967 Kochtitzky et al. 1969). The temperature gradient from the center outward lessens as the pile size increases. Since heat loss is proportional to surface area and heat generation is proportional to volume, the larger pile, having a smaller surface area to volume ratio loses relatively less heat. In large compost piles, the temperature increases steadily 70 C with time, in smaller piles there is...

Composting of Hazardous Organic Wastes

Hazardous wastes can be treated in all the systems mentioned above, but long durations are usually needed to reach permitted levels of pollution. The choice of the system depends on the required time and possible cost of the treatment. Time of the treatment decreases, but the costs increase in the following sequence windrow systems-static pile system in-vessel system. To intensify the composting of hazardous solid waste, the following pretreatments can be used mechanical disintegration and separation or screening to improve bioavailability of hazardous substances, thermal treatment, washing out of hazardous substances from waste by water or surfactants to diminish their content in waste, or application of H2O2, ozone, or Fenton's reagent as a chemical pretreatment to oxidize and cleave aromatic rings of hydrocarbons. There are many reports of successful applications of all types of composting for the treatment of crude-oil-impacted soil, petrochemicals-polluted soil, and...

Composting

7.1.1 Composting process Microbiology 7.1.2 Composting methods 7.1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of composting 7.1.4 Zoological characteristics of compost 7.2.1 Factors influencing composting Moisture 7.3 Theoretical aspects of composting 7.4 New technology in composting 7.4.4 Composting mixture 7.4.5 Composting process control 7.5 Examples of composting in Europe 7.6 Examples of composting in the United States

Composting Methods

Soil Solarization Diagrams

The most important technical methods of composting are statistic piles, windrows, and reactor vessels (shown in Figs. 12.3 and 12.4). Composting ingredients are mixed and during the composting process aeration is indicated. Bertoldi and Civilini (2006) carried out a composting process in two separate reactors first, only in the thermophilic phase, with the purpose of pathogen destruction and decomposition by selected thermophilic microorganisms second, only in the mesophilic phase, to perform the main microbial transformations with a higher rate of volatile solids destruction. The results confirmed that maintaining constant the main parameters which affect the process, the microbial activity is enhanced. In the two-phase process, the evolution of parameters like moisture, organic carbon, humified organic matter, organic N, C N, and germination index (phytotoxicity) is more rapid relative to the single phase process. Also pathogen destruction is improved with the complete elimination...

Composting Mixture

Sludge Composting Device

The new technology requires quicklime to be mixed with the dewatered sludge just prior to adding a bulking agent (sawdust, wood chips, bark, etc.) and recycled compost. Refer to Figure 7.13 for the schematic of the proposed 3.Hopper for bulking agents and recycled compost 6.Discharge conveyor for mixture to be composted 8.Composting piles 11. Cover over composting piles 3.Hopper for bulking agents and recycled compost 6.Discharge conveyor for mixture to be composted 8.Composting piles 11. Cover over composting piles Figure 7.13 Schematic of raw sludge composting. composting process. Once the quicklime and the dewatered sludge are thoroughly mixed, the bulking agent and a portion of recycled compost are added and mixed. This mixture is then formed into piles and allowed to compost until a temperature of 55 to 65 C has been maintained for 3 to 11 days. The piles are often covered with a layer of bulking agent or recycled compost to protect the pile from heat loss as well as to avoid...

Composting Process

Composting of wastewater sludge is an aerobic biothermal process that decomposes the organic constituents. It can be described by the formula Microbiology Composting represents the combined activity of a succession of mixed populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Although the interrelationship of these microbial populations is not fully understood, it is known that bacteria are responsible for the decomposition of a major portion of the organic matter. Figure 7.1 Phases during composting. Figure 7.1 Phases during composting. Composting occurs in three successive phases the mesophilic, thermophilic, and curing phases. In the initial mesophilic phase, the temperature of the composting pile increases from ambient to 40 C (104 F). In the thermophilic phase, the temperature increases from 40 C to 70 C (104 F to 160 F). In the final curing phase (also known as the cooling phase), the microbial activity is reduced, and the composting process is completed. Figure 7.1 shows the...

Composting Materials

The major categories of substrates potentially suitable for composting are the following Yard wastes Many different materials are suitable for composting organisms. The most important parameter for composting is the C N ratio (Table 12.1). Some materials contain high amounts of carbon in the form of cellulose, which is required by the bacteria for their energy and other materials contain nitrogen in the form of protein, which provide nutrients energy exchanges. Suitable ingredients with relatively high carbon content include Table 12.1 C N ratio of some raw compost materials (in Periurban Vegetable Project http puvep.xu.edu.ph composting.htm) Table 12.1 C N ratio of some raw compost materials (in Periurban Vegetable Project http puvep.xu.edu.ph composting.htm) Kitchen waste The most efficient composting occurs by seeking to obtain an initial C N mix of 25 30 by dry chemical weight (Haug 1993). Grass clippings have an average ratio of 10-19 to 1 and dry autumn leaves from 55-100 to 1....

Effects of Organic Matter Amendments

Animal manures and compost can be valuable nutrients sources to crops. In addition, while their amendments to soils represent a convenient disposal and recycle of considerable amounts of wastes, they allow to limit the application of mineral fertilizers and, thus, save farm money and energy. A number of studies have shown that manure addition is beneficial to soil in terms of plant productivity and soil quality (Haynes and Naidu 1998 Edmeades 2003). Field experiments made in southern Italy in the same site as that of Mescosagr (Fagnano et al. 2011) showed a favorable effect on lettuce yield of compost made with municipal solid wastes (MSW), proving that compost fertilization may have agronomic and environmental benefits in sandy-loam soils, if amendment rates are tuned to N requirements of crops. The compost rate of 30 Mg ha-1 satisfied the N requirements of two lettuce cycles, without causing surplus of nitrogen in posthar-vest periods and dangerous levels of nitrate and potentially...

Torino Experimental Site

After the first year, the majority of treatments on maize plots of Torino showed a significant increase of aggregate stability with respect to the initial soil (Table 4.3). Only the addition of green manure (GMAN) and the lower rate of compost (COM-1) produced smaller MWD increases. All field treatments revealed a positive effect in the distribution of water-stable aggregates, with an overall decrease in the yield of microaggregates (

Piacenza Experimental Site

The positive effect on aggregate stability for the maize field plots under compost was also confirmed at the end of the third experimental year (Table 4.4). With respect to the results of the previous years, the aggregate distribution of TRA, MIN, CAT, and No-CAT indicated an occurred recovery of the original structural stability. The values of aggregate yields and stability index for these treatments reached those found at the onset of experiments, thereby suggesting a progressive lower efficacy of both MIN and CAT on soil structural quality. Conversely, COM-2 plots showed a continuous decrease of both microaggregates ( 2.8 ) and intermediate macroaggregate fractions, which became firmly incorporated into larger sized aggregates (+13.4 ), thus improving the overall soil structural stability index (1.92).

Changes During Conversion

The transition from conventional to organic and low-input farming is accompanied by changes in an array of soil chemical properties and processes that affect soil fertility. Fundamental differences, both qualities and quantitative, in the flow and processing of nutrient result from the use of cover crops, manure and compost applications, and reduction or elimination of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. These changes affect nutrient availability to crops either directly by contributing to nutrient pools or indirectly by influencing the soil chemical and physical environment.

Biological Treatment Methods

Landfarming and composting, which are similar treatment methods, provide enhanced bioremediation without the use of mechanized systems. They are prepared-bed type treatments that require proper management of aeration, soil moisture and pH, nutrients, and temperature to affect biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil. Landfarming is an open-air process whereby petroleum-contaminated soil is amended with nutrients and then tilled in a lined biocell. A compost pile(s) can be constructed as a closed and insulated soil pile that is amended with a bulking agent (e.g., wood chips or sawdust) to enhance mixing and oxygenation, forced-air aeration, and nutrients over a smaller footprint. One treata-bility study for composting uses two or three small test piles of the soil to be treated, each amended with raw organic waste material (Savage et al. 1985). Once viable microbial populations are established in the seed piles, seed material is then blended with the target soil as compost piles...

Conveyance and Storage of Biosolids

Field Stockpiling Field stockpiling is used for short-term storage of dewa-tered cake, dried, or composted class A or B biosolids at the land application site. It is generally limited to the amount of biosolids needed to meet agronomic or reclamation requirements at a field or site. Field stockpiles should be placed in the best physical location possible in or adjacent to the fields that will receive the biosolids. For sites with a significant slope, provisions need to be made to manage up- and down-slope water. Forming windrows across slopes should be avoided to reduce the potential for piles to become anaerobic at the base where overland flow accumulates. To the extent possible, piles should be shaped to shed water. Stockpiled biosolids form an air-dried crust that sheds precipitation and prevents significant percolation of water through the pile. Nonetheless, some states require that stockpiles be covered. For composted or dried (at least 50 solids) bio-solids, tarps, wind...

Biological basis of biowastes

Food processing waste is derived from the processing of biological materials and is, in the main, biodegradable. Biowaste is defined in the landfill directive as 'waste capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition such as food and garden waste, and paper and cardboard'. The waste may be derived from plant, animal, fungal and bacterial sources, with the plant and animal origins predominating. A list of key production processes that create waste streams has been identified in the AWARENET handbook (2004 see also Fig. 1.3). A variety of waste streams will be created by the different stages of each process these have also been described generically (AWARENET, 2004). Biological wastes are highly complex since they have been derived from highly intricate living organisms and can range from whole, unused (rejected) materials through to fractions and mixtures produced by physical, thermal, chemical and biochemical processing of the original raw material. Plant wastes include...

Introduction food processing waste the scale of the problem

There are a number of reasons why so much food processing waste is produced, some economic and some technological. Traditional methods of food preparation result in relatively small amounts of locally produced domestic waste which, in the past, would have been disposed of as feed, by composting or through municipal waste disposal. However, industrial food processing, particularly that associated with the production of ready-to-eat meals, has created large, geographically localized waste streams which have generally increased over time as firms have sought to benefit from economies of scale. Furthermore, the majority of food processing systems were developed at least 20-30 (or more) years ago when waste disposal - particularly in the vegetable, cereal and fruit processing industries - was not the issue it is today. The amounts of waste, as a proportion of the raw material, are shown in Fig. 1.3. In the past, the value added by processing a portion of a raw food material to create a...

The Siallon Process A Overview

The only limitation on the process is that the hydrocarbon or organic contaminant has to be emulsifiable. This means that a wide variety of contaminants such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, motor oil, crude oil, greases and lube oils, coal tars, PCBs, chlorinated solvents, and many others can all be successfully treated within a soil or sludge matrix. Similarly, the physical nature of the host material plays little part in the final remediation results. All types of soils, from sand to clay, sludges, and tars, respond well to treatment, with the only modifications being to the actual processing or mixing equipment utilized. Pug mills, ribbon blenders, Bomags, and modified soil composting equipment have been used for the application and mixing of the Siallon reagents.

Siallon Applications And Mixing Equipment

For soil remediation on specific sites where the contaminant has little or no volatile component, there is a large amount of debris or cobble in the soil, and there is sufficient space to lay out the contaminated soil in windrows, a tractor-driven soil-mixing machine has found application. The Dirt Witch is similar to equipment used for composting soil in its overall design. The differences are in the mixing blades, the spray system, and the control system. The equipment used for the application of Siallon reagents is modified to provide intimate soil mixing rather than the simple blending accomplished with composting machines. The mixing blades are L-shaped to provide maximum turbulence in the soil. Reagent is added from a bulk storage tank controlled by pressure settings and flow rate to provide the proper spray pattern and force

Mr Gacheru Madison Wisconsin

Aboulam S, Morvan B, Revel JC (2006) Use of a rotating-drum pilot plant to model the composting of household waste on an industrial scale. Compost Sci Util 14 184-190 Ahmad R, Khalid A, Arshad M, Zahir AZ, Mahmood T (2008) Effect of compost enriched with N and L-tryptophan on soil and maize. Agron Sustain Dev 28 299-305 Alexa L, Der S, Kovacs D, F leky Gy (2004) Soil improvement with composted agricultural waste materials. 4th International Congress of the ESSC, Budapest Amlinger F, G tz B, Dreher P, Geszti J, Weissteiner C (2003) Nitrogen in biowaste and yard waste compost dynamics of mobilization and availability - a review. Eur J Soil Biol 39 107-116 Anonymus (1953) Reclamation of municipal refuse by composting. Tech Bull No 9. Sanitary Bernal MP, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Paredes C, Roig A (1998) Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil. Agric Ecosyst Environ 69 175-189 countries. ECN ORBIT Workshop, N rnberg Bloch M...

Table 24 Energy Efficiency of Biogas Production System and Incineration with Power Generation

As previously discussed, incineration of food wastes together with other miscellaneous wastes is not a suitable solution because of the generation of hazardous ash containing DXNs and heavy metals doing so also threatens food recycling efforts. A recommended option would be composting followed by the combination of biogas production and composting of the sludge. 47. Sakai, S.Booklet Let's make compost and fermented feed from garbage (in Japanese), 2000.

Reference Of G N Agrios In Case Of Soil Solarization

Abbasi PA, Al-Dahmani J, Sahin F, Hoitink HAJ, Miller SA (2002) Effect of compost amendments on disease severity and yield of tomato in conventional and organic production systems. Plant Dis 86 156-161 organic amendments. Soil Till Res 72 169-180 Barker AV, Bryson GM (2006) Comparisons of composts with low or high nutrient status for versus conventional farming in southern England. Biol Agric Hort 18 37-54 Carbonaro M, Mattera M, Nicoli S, Bergamo P, Cappelloni M (2002) Modulation of Antioxidant compounds in organic vs conventional fruit (peach, Prunus persica L., and Pear, Pyrus communis L.). J Agric Food Chem 50 5458-5462 Ceuster TJJ, Hoitink HAJ (1999) Prospects for composts and biocontrol agents as substitutes for methyl bromide in biological control of plant diseases. Compost Sci Util 7 6-15 Chang TJ (1994) Effects of soil compaction, temperature, and moisture on the development of the systems on soil structure. Biol Agric Hort 4 139-157 Ghorbani R, Leifert C, Seel W (2005)...

Scaling Up Innovative Concepts into Agricultural Field Experiments

Hydrophobic protection by humified mature compost. The general beneficial effects of humified compost on farm productivity (increase of soil fertility status and structural stability) were evaluated in combination with its potential to sequester the hydrophilic organic compounds released in soil during crop growth (microbial activity and plant exudates) into the humified hydrophobic superstructures of compost. While compost is progressively applied to agricultural soils within organic farming practices, very few data are present in the literature up to now on its capacity for a net sequestration of organic carbon in soil. Soils under maize were treated with two rates of mature compost (10 and 20 ton ha-1 year-1) and their carbon sequestration capacity compared with that of traditional and minimum tillage practices. Efficient organic farming by recycling biomass into mature compost

Principle of Fluidized Moving Beds Flumov

The drying of solid waste (or alpeorujo) is required before this waste may be used to recover orujo oil by extraction with hexane and for other processes such as the production of compost, activated coal, biopolymers, and so on. The classical driers, for example, rotary kilns (trommels) and trays, have a low thermal efficiency due to the poor air-solid contact and can present several problems because of the high moisture and sugar contents of the alpeorujo. The presence of the moving zone in flumov allows the fresh product feed to have a higher degree of moisture. Moreover, it favors the solid transport to the fluidized bed contactor, since part of the water is eliminated in the moving zone and the solid enters into the fluidized zone with a relatively low level of moisture 86 .

Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes

A second example presented was an EBIC centered phosphate fertilizer plant, with a cement production plant, a sulfiiric acid plant, and a municipal solid wastes composting plant (its product to be mixed with phosphate fertilizer and sold as a combined product to the agricultural industry) as the satellite industries (Fig. 15). As previously mentioned, in the usual starting process of producing phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphate fertilizer by dissolving the phosphate rocks with sulfuric acid, a gypsumlike sludge is generated as a byproduct and some sulfur dioxide and fluorine are in the waste gases emitted at the high reaction temperatures. The large, relatively impure, quantities of phosphogypsum (5 vol. to 1 P2O5 fertilizer produced) are difficult to treat, and the fluorine present in the gas as hydrofluoric acid (concentrations from 1-10 , which is very low for commercial use) requires further costly and extensive treatment. Using such a fertilizer production facility as the...

Soil Nutrient Balance

In conventional systems four frequently used elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium are often applied as synthetic fertilizers in relatively heavy concentrations that frequently exceed crop requirements. This can cause soil imbalances in two ways (1) by increasing or decreasing availability of some elements essential for crop growth and also by changing soil pH, and (2) by increasing productivity over the short term but in decreasing productivity over the longer term due to imbalances and deficiencies for some other essential elements that are not replaced. For example, high levels of phosphorous fertilization can lead to a deficiency of both zinc and iron causing adverse effects on plant growth. Organic systems use organic fertilizers such as manures, compost, crop residues, legumes, rock phosphate and rock potash, containing minor and trace elements as well as moderate amounts of the primary elements. yard manures, legumes, compost and other organic fertilizers in...

Microbial Parameters as Indexes of Soil Quality

A great number of methods have been developed to determine the presence and activities of microbial communities in soil. Some of them are internationally standardized (Winding et al. 2005), such as measures of population size for either a single organism type, a functional group, or a whole community. The effect of agricultural managements on soil microorganisms can be measured with changes in both community size (cell number) or microbial biomass, and biological activity, such as soil respiration. However, although addition to soil of good quality compost may increase global microbial biomass and enhance enzyme activity (Albiach et al. 2000 Perucci et al. 2000 Debosz et al. 2002), the specific responses of various bacterial groups to changing environment in agricultural soils are poorly known (Buckley and Schmidt 2001 Kiikkila et al. 2001 Chander and Joergensen 2002). Moreover, several studies showed that, in order to assess fertilizers' effects, microbial enumeration methods by...

Examples of Technologies and Treatments

Examples Manufacturing Policy

As an example, the present practise in Greece and Italy is decanting in three-phase conditions (Fig. 26) with generation of alpechin and treatment of orujo in extraction plants that use hexane to extract the orujo oil. Part of the deoiled orujo (orujillo) is used to dry wet orujo in its own extraction plant. The excess orujillo is sold as solid fuel (ceramic manufacture furnaces, cement kilns, domestic heating), or used as raw material for composting and as additive for animal feed. As we have seen in the previous section, in the case of waste resulting from the two-phase decanting process, separation into pulp, alpeorujo liquid fraction (ALF), and pits allows for the application of selective treatments and techniques such as composting, bioremediation, and gasification. Another valuable point is worth mentioning here mixing alpeorujo with other wastes such as molasses improves the production of animal feed with a high protein content.

N2O Production and Emission from Soils

Manure of cover crops (4) cultivating crops with deep-root systems (5) developing and cultivating plants with high lignin content, especially in residues and roots (6) applying non-toxic exogenous organic matter (animal manure, compost). At present, few studies have been performed on the effect of this alternative soil management on soil CO2 and N2O fluxes. Transformation of organic wastes (sewage sludge, green waste, industrial and organic waste, animal manure) into compost is becoming increasingly popular, thus reducing the use of artificial fertilizers, and the amount of waste added to landfill sites. Compost is considered to be an environmentally safe, agronomically advantageous and relatively cheap organic amendment that stimulates soil microbial activity and crop growth (Garcia et al. 1994 Pascual et al. 1997 Van-Camp et al. 2004). Composting decreases the volumes of waste and their potentially dangerous organisms, becoming an important way to recycle organic matter from wastes....

Alternative Energy Ethanol

Ethanol is derived from several sources. Food products such as corn, wheat, sugar cane, and rice are all viable candidates for ethanol production. Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of the sugars supplied from these foods. Materials used in ethanol production are wood chips, yard waste, crop residues, and solid animal waste. It can be made from just about any feedstock that has ample amounts of sugar, or materials that can be converted to sugar, such as sugar beets, sugar cane, or organic materials

Experiments With Raised C02 And Whole Plants

Earth When Relaese C02

The earliest and simplest experiments were in closed chambers with plants growing either in compost or natural soil, adding C02 to the air beyond the atmospheric concentration (Figure 8.2a). This would be compared with a control chamber where air with the C02 concentration of normal outside air (ambient air) was piped in. The trouble with these closed chambers was that they always seemed rather artificial. There was not the exchange with the outside world that might allow insects, herbivores and fungi to move in and out the plants were effectively living in a sterile environment. And you couldn't grow big trees in these chambers, only small plants.

Importance of Indigenous Soil Knowledge in Developing Sustainable Agriculture

Weelia Cylindrica

However, the implementation of agricultural practices depends upon socioeconomic factors. Farmers have excellent knowledge about the transformation of leaf material to soil (decomposition) over time, but their knowledge of various factors affecting decomposition is not well understood. They know about the root nodules, but not the role of legumes in nitrogen fixation. About 50 of the farmers interviewed thought that compost addition can improve coffee plant growth and soil fertility. Results show that farmers still possess knowledge gaps regarding unseen phenomena and more training is needed to address the unobservable ecosystem processes.

Mitigation Options of Green House Gases Emission

Aerobic degradation through composting or incorporating into soil during off-season drained period, is another promising technique. Organic amendments to flooded soils increase methane production and emission. However, application of fermented manure, like biogas slurry, reduces the emission (Debnath et al. 1996). In addition, nitrification inhibitors have been shown to inhibit methane emission. Another mitigation option may be selection of low CH4 emitting rice cultivars, as cultivars grown in similar conditions show pronounced variations in methane emission (Mitra 2000). Screening of rice cultivars with few unproductive tillers, small root system, high root oxidative activity and high harvest index are ideal for mitigating methane emission from rice fields.

Impact of Innovative Agricultural Practices of Carbon Sequestration on Soil Microbial Community

Abstract This chapter deals with the impact on soil microbiology of innovative management techniques for enhancing carbon sequestration. Within the MESCOSAGR project, the effect of different field treatments was investigated at three experimental sites differing in pedo-climatic characteristics. Several microbiological parameters were evaluated to describe the composition of soil microbial communities involved in the carbon cycle, as well as to assess microbial biomass and activity. Results indicated that both compost and catalyst amendments to field soils under maize or wheat affected microbial dynamics and activities, though without being harmful to microbial communities. Microbes are also affected by fertilization (Marschner et al. 2003), both directly and indirectly. Zhong and Cai (2007) showed that the long-term application of P and N indirectly affected microbial parameters in soil by increasing crop yields and promoting SOM accumulation. Fertilizers used in agricultural...

Experimental SetUp and Soil Climatic Conditions for Maize Trials

COM1 low rate of compost (equivalent to 130 kg ha-1 of N), moldboard plowing, 30 cm deep. 5. COM2 high rate of compost (equivalent to 260 kg ha-1 of N), moldboard plowing, 30 cm deep. 2. COM1 low rate of compost (equivalent to 130 kg ha-1 of N), moldboard plowing, 40 cm deep. 3. COM2 high rate of compost (equivalent to 260 kg ha-1 of N), moldboard plowing, 40 cm deep. Fertilization was carried out in spring just before moldboard plowing. Chemical composition of the compost used in all the three sites is reported in Table 3.4. Vetch crop (Vicia villosa L., cv. Haymaker plus) for green manure was sown at TO and NA sites in fall with a seed rate of 280 kg ha-1 and shredded at the same time of fertilizers addition. Phosphorus and K fertilization (P2O5 100 kg ha-1 K2O 200 kg ha-1) was the same on all plots. composition of the compost added to plots each year

Effects of Carbon Sequestration Methods on Soil Respiration and Root Systems in Microcosm Experiments and In Vitro

Abstract In the framework of an interdisciplinary research devoted at increasing soil capacity to act as carbon sink by means of innovative and sustainable strategies (the MESCOSAGR Project), we studied, in microcosm-scale model systems, changes of selected soil chemical properties, soil CO2 efflux, and root morpho-topology after addition of either mature compost or a biomimetic catalyst (CAT) (synthetic water-soluble iron-porphyrin), as single addition or in combination of the two treatments. Direct effects of CAT on seed germination, seedling establishment, and plant growth were also evaluated in model plant species. When applied to bare soil, CAT was able to reduce CO2 emission from soil. Soil amendment of compost alone stimulated CO2 emission from soil, whereas its combined addition with CAT strongly depressed the compost-induced CO2 release. In planted microcosms, the contribution of the rhizosphere-derived CO2 efflux markedly increased the total soil respiration and CAT addition...

Anaerobic Digestion as an Alternative Way of Recycling Biowaste

Is coverage of the storage field application is prohibited during winter months and also during early spring and late autumn in coastal areas, maximum 110 kg P ha during a 5-year period for a single application (Palm 2008).The waste status of the outputs of anaerobic digestion has been identified as a key barrier to the development of the industry to treat waste in the UK. Because of that a standard for anaerobic digestion outputs should be developed with a certification scheme and quality protocol insisting of the clarity of the regulators and regulated, the confidence in a product delivered to the right market, and removing a barrier and allowing development of the industry (Verma 2008). The soil improvement challenges with digestate are opportunities to improve source separation and the digestate quality and the threat is lack of lignin or wood (Pires 2008). Dry digestion (specifically developed for the anaerobic digestion of organics derived from household waste) becomes...

Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Animal Wastes and Lagoons

Kuroda et al. (1996) measured the emissions of GHG emitted during composting of swine faeces under continuous aeration using laboratory-scale composting apparatus. Methane emission was observed within only 1 day from starting the composting, while N2O and NH3 repeatedly rose and fell after every turning. Of the total N loss during composting, the total amount of N2O emission was a small fraction of NH3 emissions. Lessard et al. (1996) measured N2O emissions from agricultural soils after application of dairy cattle manure to cultivated land planted to maize (Zea mays L.). The manure application rates were 0, 170 and 339 kg N ha-1, respectively. On the manured plots, 67 of the total N2O emitted during the growing season occurred during the first 7 weeks following manure application. High N2O fluxes coincided with periods when NO3-N levels and soil water contents were relatively high. Fluxes were highest the first day after manure application, but returned to near pre-application levels...

Effective implementation of measures to minimise waste

Before designing a waste minimisation programme, it is important for companies to know what materials are being discarded. By examining their waste stream, companies can determine the types and amount of waste items being disposed of and decide which of the items can be eliminated, reused, recycled, or composted. A waste audit will help companies better understand their current purchasing, waste generation, and waste disposal practices. A waste audit also provides a baseline from which to measure the success of a waste minimisation programme. While collecting information about the costs associated with solid waste management, company managers who view waste disposal as a fixed overhead cost may be surprised to see the various costs involved. Checking purchasing records may also be an enlightening activity that encourages companies to change their waste management and purchasing policies. When conducting a waste audit of a facility, list all wastes generated, ascertain the composition...

Highvalue components and wholewaste exploitation

Finally, some co-products may be unsuitable for exploitation due, for example, to their complexity, uncontrolled spoilage or lack of trace-ability. In such cases, non-food exploitation as energy sources may be appropriate via fermentation and biogas production, and other microbially based disposal systems such as composting. New technologies may provide opportunities to convert such biomass into biofuels. Hence, it should be possible to reduce landfill considerably, and in the case of plant-based co-products, to avoid it altogether. Of course, the final arbiter will be the cost-effectiveness of this strategy, as measured by perceived return on investment, and this will have to take into account locally Composting energy use

Assessment of Present Situation

Tire recycling activities include the use of whole tires or processed tires for useful purposes. Whole tire applications include reefs and breakwaters, playground equipment, erosion control, and highway crash barriers. Processed tire products include mats and other rubber products, rubberized asphalt, playground gravel substitute, and bulking agent for sludge composting.

Effects of Cover Crops Mulching and Green Manure

Spontaneous living cover was established under olive trees in a 30 sloping soil in Basilicata, and Chiaffitelli et al. (2005) investigated the evolution of potential soil protection after death of cover species in spring. They found that belowground residue decomposition was very low throughout the summer when the soil was dry, and the soil protection from herbaceous root residue was unchanged in early fall. In the same field setting, the lack of N in highly eroded areas favored the colonization of N-fixing cover species, whereas nonfixing species, namely grass, would have been more desirable because of their greater potential for soil protection. The spatial distribution of soil-protecting species was improved after compost application. Chiaffitelli et al. (2005) concluded that managing the complexity introduced by intercropping can enhance the environmental benefits of cover crops and retain

Utilizing all the waste

Fish Ensiling

There are three main categories of co-products that utilize all, or almost all, seafood processing wastes. These are compost, meals, and hydrolysates or digests. These products are often produced by independent entrepreneurs, who have the time and interest to learn the technology and to develop markets that, for the most part, have nothing to do with seafood. We will define each technology, explain how to get started on a small scale, and discuss the pros and cons of each. Composting Composting is the controlled, microorganism-mediated breakdown of organic materials containing both carbon and nitrogen, to produce a humuslike material that can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Composting can be aerobic (requiring oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen). Aerobic composting reduces odors and improves nitrogen retention, compared with the anaerobic process. The biggest advantage of composting is that it is the only process that accommodates all organic waste generated by fish...

Future themes of sustainable agriculture in relation to N2O emissions

Significant aspect in the evaluation of sustainable farming. Livestock husbandry had a greater influence on N2O emissions than crop production over the study period. Direct and indirect N2O emissions from livestock husbandry during livestock excreta management, which are the main sources of N2O emissions, are not addressed by any existing laws. Deodorization during composting by trapping NH3 or excreta handling to prevent NH3 effluence and changing the conventional method of composting to reduce the high levels of N2O emissions would be possible mitigation options. Over the study period, a reduction in crop production reduced total N2O emissions and emissions per unit area cultivated. Therefore, efforts to reduce N2O emissions from livestock husbandry should be the primary aim in future.

Ex Situ Biological Treatment

In ex situ biological treatment, wastewater, soil, and sediment are first moved to treatment stations and treated biologically. For soil, sediment, bedrock, and sludge, biopiles, composting, landfarming, slurry phase biological treatment can be used natural subsurface and surface waters can be remediated by bioreactors and constructed wetlands. A series of bioreactors have been widely studied and applied 12 . If based on oxygen environments, there are aerobic and anaerobic treatments if based on reactor configuration, there are continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR), plug-flow reactors (PFR), fixed-bed reactors (FBR), and fluidized-bed reactors.

Enzymatic Activities and Soil Carbon Sequestration Strategies

Table 7.1 Number of published literature on enzymes and PLFAs in soil as related to compost and tillage treatments Table 7.1 Number of published literature on enzymes and PLFAs in soil as related to compost and tillage treatments Soil* AND enzym* AND compost Soil* AND PLFA* AND compost (McLaren 1954 McLaren et al. 1957). From then on, the assessment of enzymatic activities (or more generally biological activities, as in the case of nitrification, where a series of enzymatic activities is involved) has become widely popular. A search on the Scopus scientific database using soil* and enzym* as search words among titles, abstracts and keywords gives a total 14,332 published papers, with more than a thousand papers per year (Table 7.1). If the search is restricted adding either compost or tillage, the number of published papers is, respectively, 382 and 203, with a slight increase in the last years. Arylsulphatase activity is usually assessed by adding a substrate such as...

Concluding Notes on Soil Physical Quality

Nevertheless, though results indicate a small effect of soil management as compared to intrinsic soil physical properties, significant differences on aggregate-size distribution and MWD were found among various treatments in the three sites. A similar aggregation process was revealed by fractionating TRA, MIN, and GMAN soils at any experimental site. This indicates that either a reduced soil disturbance by minimum tillage, or green manuring by soil incorporation of residues from leguminous crops, did not significantly modify the aggregate dynamics, neither in the sandy-loam soil of Torino, nor in the heavier textured soils of Piacenza and Napoli. On the contrary, a slight but significant improvement of soil aggregation and structural stability were found for both compost treatments (COM-1 and COM-2), in comparison to either TRA, MIN, or GMAN. A large literature indicates that soil amendments with different compost materials provide an effective improvement in aggregate stability and...

Choice of activity data

Composting -In-Vesselc Composting, typically in an enclosed channel, with forced aeration and continuous mixing. Composting -Static Pilec Composting in piles with forced aeration but no mixing. Composting - Composting in windrows with regular turning for mixing and aeration. Judgement of IPCC Expert Group. Expected to be greater than passive windrows and intensive composting operations, as emissions are a function of the turning frequency. Composting - Composting in windrows with infrequent turning for mixing and aeration. May be similar to open pits in enclosed animal confinement facilities or may be designed and operated to dry the manure as it accumulates. The latter is known as a high-rise manure management system and is a form of passive windrow composting when designed and operated properly. c Composting is the biological oxidation of a solid waste including manure usually with bedding or another organic carbon source typically at thermophilic temperatures produced by microbial...

Natural dyes from food processing wastes representative examples

Onion peels corresponds to an equivalent amount of 32 g of commercial reactive dye. The annual amount of onions harvested in Austria is about 100 000 tonnes51 and 10 of this amount is red skin onions.20,51 Onions lose their outermost papery skin during handling or the peels are removed before final use. Traditionally the peels are wastes that are collected and released to farming areas for composting (K. Wais, Karl Wais GmbH (large-scale vegetable merchandising company, personal communication, 2005).20 Thus the material is available in considerable amounts and at low costs. The low specific weight of onion peels may require compression to lower volumes for transportation. Dyeing experiments showed a wide variety of orange brown olive shades depending on substrate, mordant and dyeing technology. The substrate's influence on the shade and fastness can be seen more clearly in Table 19.11.

Thesis On Soil Solarization With The References 2016

Agron J 87 762-767 Conklin AE, Erich MS, Liebman M, Lambert D, Gallandt ER, Halteman WA (2002) Effects of red clover (Trifolium pratense) green manure and compost soil amendments on wild mustard (Brassica kaber) growth and incidence of disease. Plant Soil 238 245-256 Cook SM, Khan ZR, Pickett JA (2007) The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management. Annu Rev Entomol 52 375-400 Courtois B, Olofsdotter M (1998) Incorporating the allelopathy trait in upland rice breeding programs. In Olofsdotter M (ed) Allelopathy in rice. Int Rice Res Ins, Manila, Philippines, pp 57-68

Conclusion and Future Recommendations

Amendment with compost appears to have a promising environmental application, although its use depends on soil texture and clay content, as shown by our studied sites. In fact, compost was found to decrease cultivable microorganisms, microbial carbon, and coefficient of SOM mineralization in clayey soils, possibly due to an increased physical and chemical protection of organic matter from microbial attack. On the other hand, such an effect was not equally evident in soil with lower clay content. Van Elsas et al. (2007) denied direct correlation between abundance of microbial populations and their activities (e.g., N-fixation and cellulosolytic activities). The activities are sometimes enhanced by an improved nutrient availability caused by lower competition among microbial cells and by a large concentration of microbivores (microbial-feeding microfauna such as mites and nematodes), which keep bacterial abundance at a minimum. Thus, a poliphasic approach including microfauna analyses...

What Leisa Farmers do and may do

In Niger, traditional planting pits were improved by making them into water collecting reservoirs imitating part of a soil improvement technology traditionally used in other parts of the country and in Burkina Faso (MOST CIRAN, running database (2)). From Burkina Faso, it has most recently been reported that villages that adopted land reclamation techniques such as this pitting through crusted soils, filling the pits with manure and water, have seen crop yields rise by 60 , while villages that did not adopt these techniques realized much smaller gains in crop yields under very recent rainfall increases (Reij, cited in Katz, 2002). In north Nigeria small pits in sandy soil are filled with manure for keeping transplanted tree seedlings wet after the first rains. This is tried in China by stony structures in pits, diminishing soil evaporation. Permaculture, water harvesting and infiltration pits, together with the use of drought tolerant crops, have been more recently extended in...

Chain management to minimise waste

Environmental supply-chain management emphasises activities that reduce, reuse, recycle, compost, vermicompost, or substitute materials. To minimise waste, the principles of integration and partnership should be utilised together. Companies in the food processing supply chain must work together using an integrated approach to waste management. A life-cycle approach ought to be applied to the environmental impacts of each product.

Impact of Different Agricultural Practices on Soil Microbial Communities The Mescosagr Case Study

Communities would be influenced by (1) addition of compost, a humified and hydrophobic material that protects the easily degradable organic fraction, and (2) in situ photo-oxidative polymerization of native SOM under the action of a biomimetic catalyst (CAT) (iron-porphyrin). The effect of these two technologies on soil microorganisms was compared with that exerted by traditional deep tillage and minimum tillage. The latter is an agronomic practice commonly used to reduce SOM depletion and limit CO2 emission from soil into the atmosphere (see Chap. 3).

Negative Impacts Of Antithamnionella Spirographidis On Biodiversity And Humans

74, 130, 167 Composting, 287-295, 298-302 Computer-designed maps, 97 composting, 287-289, 291-293, 298-300 crop, 269, 342 cultivation system, 276 ecophysiology, 109, 339-340 farming, 262-265, 279, 363 farms, 264, 312, 366-367 industry, 74, 79, 339, 362, 367 recycling, 287-289 reproduction, 321, 331 Secondary metabolite, 170, 388-389 Sedimentation, 61, 63, 130, 328 Semi-intensive IMTA, 312 Shade plants, 212

What Stabilization And Conditioning Mean Prestage Basics

Sludge cake storage (where a cake is the dewatered solid part of sludge) provides similar benefits for downstream disposal alternatives, like composting and incineration, to sludge storage which is used for thickening and dewatering. Storage of sludge cakes increases operational reliability, evens out flow fluctuations, and allows accumulation when downstream operations are not in service. Bins or hoppers are used to store sludge cakes. These can be made of any size form several cubic meters to 380 cubic meters capacity. Existing sludge dewatering operations can produce cakes that are 15 to 40 solids. These cakes range in consistency from

Solid Waste Treatment Methods

Many of the abovementioned treatment methods for liquid waste are suitable for the treatment of solid liquid waste arising from the two-phase decanter (alpeorujo). Some of these methods are also appropriate for the treatment of solid waste (orujo), such as recycling methods (composting and livestock feeding). In this respect, a distinction should be made between aerobic treatment systems for liquid waste (such as activated sludge, trickling filter, bioremediation) and aerobic treatment systems for solid waste (such as composting).

The Stable Isotopes Approach to Study C and N Sequestration Processes in a Plant Soil System

Abstract This chapter reviews the main methods for tracing N and C stable isotopes in natural and agricultural systems following organic and mineral amendments to soil. Moreover, we present the results obtained from two field experiments conducted, within the MESCOSAGR project, to evaluate either the fate and flow rate of N added as 15N-compost in a maize-soil system or the contribution of sorghum roots to soil organic carbon. Compost contribution to plant nutrition was about 20 of applied N in the first experimentation year, while this value decreased in the following 2 years. The mineralization rate in the first year was anyhow variable depending on compost maturity and composition, while compost amendments mostly affected the inclusion of 15N in soil macro-aggregates. The compost-derived nitrogen sequestered in soil, due to repeated amendments, was estimated to account for 34.2, 38.2 and 42.5 of total N-compost for the first, second and third years, respectively. On the other hand,...

Ways To Minimize Waste

Only 2 percent of waste is actually recycled. Solid waste recycling implies recovery of a component of waste for use in a manner different from its initial function. Recycling consists of recovering from waste the matter of which a product was made and reintroducing it into the production cycle for reproduction of the same item. Composting after decomposition by aerobic bacteria mostly readily recycles garbage, grass, and organic matter. Composting may be defined as the decomposition of moist, solid, organic matter by the use of aerobic microorganisms under controlled conditions. The end product of the decomposition is a sanitary, nuisance-free, humus-like material that can be used as soil conditioner and as partial replacement for fertilizer. In a

Aerated Static Pile Process

The identifying feature of the aerated static pile system is a grid of aeration piping for forced aeration. A blower or fan aerates the pile. The aerated static pile process consists of mixing of dewatered sludge with a bulking agent (usually, wood chips), construction of the composting pile over the grid of aeration piping, composting, screening of the compost, and curing and storage. Figure 7.5 shows an aerated static pile process of composting. The aeration grid is usually made of 100- to 150-mm (4- to 6-in.) perforated plastic pipe laid inside a 0.3-m (1-ft) plenum of wood chips. The wood chips facilitate even distribution of air during composting and absorb moisture that may condense and drain from the pile. The compost pile is constructed on top of the plenum. The pile is usually 2 to 2.5 m (6 to 8 ft) high. The entire pile is then covered with a 150- to 200-mm (6- to 8-in.)-thick layer of wood chips or unscreened finished compost for insulation. The forced air provides a more...

Liquid Waste Treatment Methods

The following key treatment methods are mainly applied to liquid waste. Some of these methods can also be used in the treatment of liquid-solid waste (alpeorujo), for example, treatment by fungi, evaporation drying, composting, and livestock feeding. However, those methods tested at laboratory scale must be critically examined before applying them at industrial or full-scale, in order to meet the local environmental and economical conditions.

Data from waste stream analyses

The figure above shows an example of a paper waste flow chart for analysis of change in DOCm in waste during the treatment before disposal. Some portion of paper waste would be recovered as material, and be diverted from the waste management flow. The DOCm in paper waste is reduced by intermediate processes, such as composting and incineration before disposal at the SWDS. Mass of total waste, DOCm and moisture at the exit of each process can be given by multiplying mass of these components at the entrance by reduction rates of the process. In this figure the changes of mass are studied for paper waste solely, although the treatment steps would usually include also other waste types. Incineration will remove most of the moisture, but the ash will be re-wetted to avoid the fly loss during transportation and loading into SWDS. Greenhouse gas emissions from other categories than SWDS (i.e., resource recovery, composting, incineration and use on land) should be estimated under guidelines...

The Humified SOM Fraction and Its Characterization by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of the compost materials as well as of HS extracted from soils were acquired on a Bruker AV-300, equipped with a 4 mm wide-bore MAS probe. Spectra were obtained with the following parameters 13,000 Hz of rotor spin rate 1 s of recycle time 1 ms of contact time 20 ms of acquisition time 4,000 scans. Samples were packed in 4 mm zirconia rotors with Kel-F caps. The pulse sequence was applied with a 1H ramp to account for non-homogeneity of the Hartmann-Hahn condition at high spin rotor rates. For the interpretation of 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra, the overall chemical shift range was divided into the following main resonance regions (Spaccini et al. 2009) alkyl-C (0-45 ppm) methoxyl-C and N-alkyl-C (45-60 ppm) O-alkyl-C (60-110 ppm) unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted aromatic-C (110-145 ppm) oxygen substituted aromatic-C (145-160 ppm) carboxyl- and carbonyl-C (160-200 ppm). The area of each spectral region (R abs) was divided by the sum of all spectral areas, in order to...

Sources of further information and advice

Compost Proceedings of the 1991 Fisheries By-Products Composting Conference (Nelson, K., Ed.), Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute. mathur, s. p., daigle, j.-y., l vesque, m. and dinel, h. (1986), The feasibility of preparing high quality composts from fish scrap and peat with seaweeds or crab scrap. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 4, 27-38. brinton, w. f. and seekins, m. d. (1988), Composting Fish By-Products A Feasibility Study, Woods End Research Laboratory, Mt. Vernon, Maine. Staff of BioCycle (Eds.) (1991), The Art and Science of Composting, J. G. Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania. For those serious about starting a composting operation, a subscription to Biocycle Magazine (Emmaus, Pennsylvania) is a worthwhile investment.

Biotechnological Processes

Biotechnological processes mainly include aerobic (composting), anaerobic (mixed fermentation), solid fermentation, and fungal treatments. A detailed description of methodologies, results, and case studies related to these processes was discussed in Section 17.5. The composting method for solid waste treatment is preferable to other methods. This

Concluding Notes on Soil Organic Carbon

The field experiments of the MESCOSAGR project have provided sound indications that the innovative soil treatments, such as amendment with mature hydrophobic compost and in situ SOC photo-polymerization through biomimetic catalysis, sequestered carbon and stabilized SOM more than conventional soil management practices. In fact, the variability in SOC content throughout the experimentation period shown by both MIN and GMAN suggests that these treatments were not able to persistently stabilize OC in both bulk samples and soil particle sizes more than TRA. Moreover, NMR evaluation of soil HS extracted from MIN and GMAN excluded any significant and persistent variation in SOM chemical quality with respect to TRA. Conversely, results obtained for COM-1, COM-2, and CAT plots for all experimental sites during the whole experimentation, suggest an overall positive effect of soil treatments with both humified compost and biomimetic catalyst on SOC accumulation and stabilization....

Planned Ecosystem Engineers

A half century later, Albert Howard, an Englishman working in India, devised his famous Indore composting system, which was far more than simply a composting system. Howard's approach, which we can presume came from extensive observations of and conversations with Indian farmers, was focused on the health of the soil, arguing that a healthy soil, by which he meant one that contained a well-balanced mixture of worms, fungi, and bacteria and other microorganisms, would produce healthy food, while a soil devoid of those healthy elements would not produce such healthy food. Indeed, the connection between ecological health on the farm and the health-promoting qualities of food produced there was a key element of the early organic agriculture movement (Conford 2001). Howard thus noticed the immense effect of ecological engineers (i.e., worms, fungi, and bacteria and other microorganisms in the soil) in creating what he referred to as a healthy soil. Modern soil science completely accepts...

Foreword to the First Edition

Olive-milling like every human activity and industrial process results in a low-entropy desired product and a high-entropy unwanted by-product or waste termed olive-mill waste. The production of olive oil, viewed in a holistic perspective, begins with the picking of olives and ends after their processing in olive-mills. Olive-mill technology at present generates a variety of waste in both energy and mass forms. In addition to solid waste generated in the olive groves by annual pruning of olive trees, a considerable amount of solid waste is generated during milling in the form of leaves and small twigs brought to the mill with the olives and in the form of crushed olive stones and sizable remnants of olive pulp (flesh) following olive oil extraction. Leaves and twigs can be used as animal feed (mainly for goats) or in the production of compost after mixing with other appropriate materials. Liquid waste is known as olive-mill wastewater (OMWW), since during olive milling and olive oil...

Active Restoration Techniques

Is a major limiting factor for seedling establishment of native shrubs and trees. These techniques include artificial shading, irrigation in the dry season, elimination of herb competition, use of gels that absorb and very slowly release water, ground preparation to increase infiltration, and microtopography modification to canalise run-off toward the reforested plots. When nutrients are limiting, manure and compost from agricultural, industrial, or sewage plants' residues have been utilised. Another technique that has successfully been used is planting the seedling below the canopy of naturally established nurse shrubs, which provide an ameliorated microenvironment for the introduced seedlings. Many of these techniques are discussed in more detail in other chapters of this book. It should be noted that the choice of technique will need to be determined by the climatic, biophysical, and socioeconomic conditions.

Procedures and Performance

Human pathogen reduction in a field experiment with vermiculture (vermi-composting) was found to reduce fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., enteric viruses, and helminth ova more effectively than composting (Eastman et al., 2001). The ratio of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) to biosolids was 1 1.5 wet weight. After 144 hr, fecal coliforms showed a 6.4-log reduction, while a control experiment showed only a 1.6-log reduction. Salmonella spp. reduction was 8.6 log, and the control reduction was 4.9 log. Enteric viruses were reduced by 4.6 log as compared to 1.8 log reduction in the control. Helminth ova reduction was 1.9 log vs. 0.6 log in the control.

Effects of landfill management

One-quarter of methane generated in the landfill cannot be captured by gas recovery systems due to low concentration of methane and resulting poor economy or is diffusely emitted during or after finishing the gas collection. A portion thereof can be oxidized in a landfill surface layer with a methane oxidizing substrate, such as compost or residues from mechanical-biological waste treatment. By this means the residual methane emissions can be reduced by about 60 percent in the case of the deposition of MSW.

Improving end waste management in vegetable oil production

Several methods have been proposed for OMWW and olive disposal, based on evaporation ponds, thermal concentration, physicochemical and biological treatments, as well as their application to agricultural soils as an organic fertilizer either directly or after a composting process. Various processes have been developed for the treatment of organic fractions of differently composed wastes to upgrade them to more valuable, re-usable products, organic acids and solvents, and biopolymer or bio-surfactant production, or a least to recover their energy content. Different oxidation methods exist for the abatement of the major contaminants present in oil industrial waste-waters by ozone and or UV radiation versus solar light. The possibility of using an electrochemical treatment of OMWW to oxidize phenols and polyphenols has also been explored.

Better integration of animal manure or human nitrogen and phosphorus in the agricultural system

Better integration of animal manure in crop production systems, and recycling of N in human excreta and compost are further ways to reduce N fertilizer use. In practice only a fraction of this potential reduction in N fertilizer use is realized, in part because of the segregation of crop and livestock production systems and the lack of economic incentives for recycling. The concept of ecological sanitation aiming at closure of local material flow cycles (Langergraber and Muelleggera, 2005) could be a way to recycle human excreta, but is only applied in a few countries. Janssen and Oenema (2008)

Design Features Of A Green Home

Rainwater from the roof is harvested and gray-water reuse systems are installed in a green home. High efficiency fixtures (toilets, showers, and faucets) are used. In some cases, even composting toilets or living machines treat human wastes. Durable materials used in the construction are sourced locally to avoid unnecessary transportation. All wood is Forest Stewardship Council certified, and products are chosen from an environmentally preferable product list, which favors recycled and recyclable materials and rapidly renewable materials. Waste during construction is minimized, and waste is recycled during construction and during use (for example, through curb-side recycling and back-yard composting).

Effects of Methods of Carbon Sequestration in Soil on Biochemical Indicators of Soil Quality

Abstract Here we describe the effects of carbon sequestration managements on soil enzymatic activities and PLFA patterns, as viable parameters to establish soil biochemical quality and its changes. We extensively review the available scientific literature related to experimental results on soil enzymatic activities and PLFA values from different soil treatments. This knowledge was then compared with the experimental results obtained within the MESCOSAGR project. It was found that MESCOSAGR findings are well in agreement with literature, and they show that the use of mature compost or adoption of reduced tillage practices provides an improvement of soil quality, as shown by a general increase in different enzymatic activities. The carbon sequestration method based on the in situ photo-polymerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by a water-soluble iron-porphyrin spread on soil did not show significant difference in soil biochemical quality from control. Changes in microbial...

AFM Microbial Biomass and Activity

The results of microbial counts were confirmed by evaluating active fungal biomass (AFM), microbial carbon (Cmic), and soil respiration. The soils of Torino and Napoli showed statistically significant differences for microbial and fungal biomass and CEM in 2008 and for all investigated parameters in 2007 (Table 6.1). In the third year (2008) of experimentation (Table 6.1), active fungal biomass (AFM) and microbial carbon (Cmic) were significantly affected by compost amendment (COM-2). Moreover, when considering the variability within groups, a significant effect was observed for soil (bulk rhizo) and site (Napoli Torino), as well as for Table 6.1 Levels of significance (p values from ANOVA) for effects of compost amendments on microbial biomass and activity in bulk soil and rhizo soil at Napoli and Torino sites, and differences between years Table 6.1 Levels of significance (p values from ANOVA) for effects of compost amendments on microbial biomass and activity in bulk soil and rhizo...

Choice of emission factors

The emissions from composting, and anaerobic digestion in biogas facilities, will depend on factors such as type of waste composted, amount and type of supporting material (such as wood chips and peat) used, temperature, moisture content and aeration during the process. Composting

Renewable Energy Technologies

Biogas is produced through biogas plants. These plants operate using waste from paper and sugar production, sewage, animal waste, and other biodegradable wastes. These wastes are slurried together and allowed to ferment with bacteria to produce methane gas. This methane gas is a renewable natural gas used for cooking, heating, and electricity production. In Asia, many developing countries such as India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bhutan, have individual household biogas plants to meet household energy demands. There is immense viability to having commercial biogas plants. Current sewage treatment plants can easily be converted to biogas plants. Once the methane gas is extracted from waste, the remaining sludge can be used as a fertilizer. It is five times higher in nitrogen than compost produced from the same biomass.

Measurements of CO2 and N2O Fluxes from Soil 921 State of the Art on Soil Gases Measurements

Among alternative soil managements, minimum tillage, green and animal manure have been largely studied. Research on the use of compost in agricultural soils has been mostly focused on nutrition and environment aspects, i.e., OM quantity and quality, accessibility of organic contaminants and heavy metals, crops yield, soil microbial response. Fewer studies were devoted on GHGs emissions from soils following compost addition. Moreover, no examples are up-to-date present in literature for the use of catalysts in soils to structurally modify SOM and increase carbon fixation.

Good housekeeping recommendations for specific industries to reduce waste

The principal processing steps include (i) general cleaning and dirt removal (ii) removal of leaves, skin, and seeds (iii) blanching (iv) washing and cooling (v) packaging and (vi) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). Waste includes peelings, stems, seeds, shells, etc. and products that are off-spec, damaged, out-of-date, or returned. Reduce waste by using air flotation units to remove debris from raw fruits and vegetables. In addition, try to wash, grade, and trim crops in the field so that the waste can biodegrade in nature rather than becoming a solid waste problem in buildings. This type of waste can be reused as animal feed or converted to compost, mulch, or soil conditioners. This waste is caused by overproduction, product deterioration, damaged goods, spills, or operator errors. Improving process control will have the greatest impact on reducing this waste stream, since most of the waste is due to cutting errors, incorrect weight, misforming, and contamination. Waste can also be decreased...

Legislative And Regulatory History

With limited open land area, sludge disposal has always been a major problem for the New York-New Jersey region. In 1924, New York City began routine ocean disposal of sewage sludge at a dump site 12 miles south of Rockaway Inlet off Long Island. Over the following five decades, New Jersey and Westchester County also used ocean dumping to dispose of sewage sludge. By 1979, 5.4 million metric tons (mt) of sewage sludge solids (5 percent) had been dumped into the shallow (30-meter) site (Mueller et al., 1982). Because of the ecological effects, and the resulting political and public controversy (NACOA, 1981), ocean dumping at the 12-mile site was abandoned in 1985. Sludge disposal was then moved to a deepwater site 106 miles offshore until this practice was ended in 1992. New York City has subsequently constructed eight sludge dewatering facilities. Various private contractors then further process approximately 1,200 tons per day of dewatered sludge, known as biosolids for beneficial...

Chapter review questions

4.8 Determine the per capita characteristics of BOD and suspended solids (SS) if garbage grinders are installed in a community. Assume that the average per capita flow is 110 gpd and that the typical average per capita contributions for domestic wastewater with ground kitchen waste are BOD 0.21 lb capita day SS is 0.28 lb capita day.

Design Considerations

In this section we describe the factors that need to be considered in the design and operation of composting facilities. These factors, the factors influencing composting described earlier, and the theoretical aspects of composting described in another section should be considered to meet the requirements of each composting system. Energy Balance Haug (1993) has shown that the organic decomposition in a composting operation is self-sustaining when the ratio W is less than 10, where mass of water in initial compost mixture Organic decomposition produces water and generates heat. To keep this ratio below 10, it is important that sufficient moisture is removed from the mixture by evaporation. However, the composting process temperature should be maintained for proper decomposition. The temperature in the mixture will not rise if rate of heat loss exceeds the rate of heat generation. Detention Time When the aerated static pile composting system was developed by the U.S. Department of...

Anaerobic Digestion173

7 Composting 235 7.1.1 Composting Process, 236 7.1.2 Composting Methods, 237 7.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composting, 239 7.1.4 Zoological Characteristics of Compost, 239 7.2.1 Factors Influencing Composting, 240 7.3 Theoretical Aspects of Composting, 252 7.4 New Technology in Composting, 259 7.4.4 Composting Mixture, 262 7.4.5 Composting Process Control, 263 7.5 Examples of Composting in Europe, 267 7.6 Examples of Composting in the United States, 272 9.4 Composting, 309 9.5 Comparison of Thermal Drying and Composting, 310

Modern Landfill Solutions

The waste industry foresees the development of additional landfill innovations in the future that will further protect the environment and human health. One of the most promising ideas is the bioreactor landfill, a system that adds liquids and or air to the waste in landfills in order to accelerate the biodegradation process, stabilize the landfill waste, and better seal it off from the surrounding environment. There are two types of bioreactor landfills aerobic, or using oxygen, in which water and air are circulated through the landfill, which increases normal composting-type decomposition of the organic material and anaerobic, or oxygen free, in which decomposition is stimulated simply by adding and recirculating liquids.

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