3. Vulnerability and Adaptation Analyses of Coupled Human-Environment Systems. Some examples include developing methods and indicators for assessing vulnerability2 and developing and assessing integrative management ap
2 Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including changes in climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity (NRC, 2010a).
proaches to respond effectively to the impacts of climate change on coasts, freshwater resources, food production systems, human health, and other sectors.
4. Research to Support Strategies for Limiting Climate Change. Some examples include developing new and improved technologies for reducing GHG emissions (such as enhanced energy efficiency technologies and wind, solar, geo-thermal-based, and other energy sources that emit few or no GHGs), assessing alternative methods to limit the magnitude of future climate change (such as modifying land use practices to increase carbon storage or geoengineering3 approaches), and developing improved analytical frameworks and participatory approaches to evaluate trade-offs and synergies among actions taken to limit climate change.
5. Effective Information and Decision-Support Systems. Some examples include research on risk communication and risk-management processes; improved understanding of individual, societal, and institutional factors that facilitate or impede decision making; analysis of information needs and existing decision-support activities, and research to improve decision-support products, processes, and systems.
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