Research needs in this area, explored in further detail in Chapter 17, include the following:
• Continue to improve understanding of what leads to the adoption and implementation of international agreements on climate and other environmental issues and what mechanisms are most effective at achieving their goals.
• Develop and evaluate protocols, institutions, and technologies for monitoring and verifying compliance with international agreements.
• Continue to improve methods for estimating costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness.
• Develop methods for analyzing complex, hybrid policies.
• Develop further understanding of how institutions interact in the context of multilevel governance and adaptive risk management.
• Develop analyses that examine climate policy from a sustainability perspective, taking account of the full range of effects of climate policy on human well-being, including unintended consequences and equity effects.
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