Research is needed to better understand and project the impacts of climate change on ecosystems, ecosystem services, and biodiversity and to evaluate how land and ocean changes and management options influence the climate system. Some of the key research needs in these areas, which are described in further detail in Chapter 9, include the following:
Improve understanding of how higher temperatures, enhanced CO2, and other climate changes, acting in conjunction with other stresses, are influencing or may influence ecosystems, ecosystem services, and biodiversity. Evaluate the potential climate feedbacks associated with changes in ecosystems and biodiversity on land and in the oceans.
Assess the potential of land and ocean ecosystems to limit or buffer the impacts of climate change through specific management actions. Improve assessments of the vulnerabilities of ecosystems to climate change, including methods for quantifying ecosystem benefits to society. Improve observations and modeling of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and their interactions with the climate system.
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