Additional research is needed to clarify exposure-response relationships and impacts of climate change on human health, identify effective and efficient adaptation options, and quantify the trade-offs and co-benefits associated with responses to climate change in other sectors. Some key research needs, which are explored in further detail in Chapter 11, include the following:
• Systematically assess current and projected health risks associated with climate change.
• Carry out research on the feedbacks and interactions between air quality and climate change.
• Characterize the differential vulnerabilities of particular populations to climate-related impacts and the multiple stressors they already face or may encounter in the future.
• Identify effective, efficient, and fair adaptation measures to deal with health impacts of climate change.
• Develop integrated approaches to evaluate ancillary health benefits (and unintended consequences) of actions to limit or adapt to climate change.
• Develop better understanding of informing, communicating with, and educating the public and health professionals as an adaptation strategy.
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