Because energy is a dominant component of human GHG emissions, major investments are needed in both the public and private sectors to accelerate research, development, and deployment of climate-friendly energy technologies. Research is also needed on behavioral and institutional barriers to adoption of new energy technologies. It is critical that energy research not be conducted in an isolated manner, but rather using integrated approaches and analyses that investigate energy supply and use within the greater context of efforts to achieve sustainable development goals and other societal concerns. Some specific research needs, discussed in further detail in Chapter 14, include the following:
• Develop new energy technologies along with effective implementation strategies.
• Develop improved understanding of behavioral impediments at both the individual and institutional level to reducing energy demand and adopting energy efficient technologies.
• Develop analytical frameworks to evaluate trade-offs and synergies between efforts to limit the magnitude and adapt to climate change.
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