Ackerman, K. V., and E. T. Sundquist. 2008. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets. Environmental Science & Technology 42(15):5688-5693.

Adams, P. N., and D. L. Inman. 2009. Climate Change and Potential Hotspots of Coastal Erosion Along the Southern California Coast—Final Report. CEC-500-2009-022-F, Sacramento, California Energy Commission.

Adger, W. N., J. Paavola, S. Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. 2006. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adger, W. N., S. Agrawala, M. M. Q. Mirza, C. Conde, K. L. O'Brien, J. Pulhin, R. Pulwarty, B. Smit, and K. Takahashi. 2007. Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, C. E. Hanson, and P. J. Van Der Linden, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adger, W. N., I. Lorenzoni, and K. O'Brien. 2009a. Adaptation now. In Adapting to Climate Change:Thresholds, Values, Governance. W. N. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, and K. L. O'Brien, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adger, W. N., S. Dessai, M. Goulden, M. Hulme, I. Lorenzoni, D. R. Nelson, L. O. Naess, J. Wolf, and A. Wreford. 2009b. Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Climatic Change 93(3-4):335-354.

Adler, M. D., and E. A. Posner. 2006. New Foundations of Cost-Benefit Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Agrawala, S. 2004. Adaptation, development assistance and planning: Challenges and opportunities. IDS Bulletin—Institute of Development Studies 35:50-54.

Agrawal, A. 2008. The role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. In Social Dimensions of Climate Change Workshop. Washington, DC: Social Development Department, The World Bank.

Agrawal, A., and N. Perrin. 2008. Climate Adaptation, Local Institutions, and Rural Livelihoods. Ann Arbor, MI: International Forestry Resources and Institutions Program, University of Michigan.

AGU (American Geophysical Union). 2009. Geoengineering the Climate System. A Position Statement of the American Geophysical Union (adopted by the AGU Council on December 13, 2009). Washington, DC: AGU.

Airame, S., J. E. Dugan, K. D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, D. A. Mcardle, and R. R. Warner. 2003. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13 (1):S170-S184.

Akbari, H., M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha. 2001. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy 70(3):295-310.

Akbari, H., S. Menon, and A. Rosenfeld. 2009. Global cooling: Increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset CO2. Climatic Change 94(3-4):275-286.

Albrecht, A., D. Schindler, K. Grebhan, U. Kohnle, and H. Mayer. 2009. Storminess over the North-Atlantic European region under climate change—a review. Allgemeine Forst Und Jagdzeitung 180(5-6):109-118.

Aldy, J. E., and R. N. Stavins. 2007. Architectures for Agreement. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Alheit, J., and E. Hagen. 1997. Long-term climate forcing of European herring and sardine populations. Fisheries Oceanography 6:130-139.

Allan, J. D., M. A. Palmer, and N. L. Poff. 2005. Climate change and freshwater ecosystems. Pp. 272-290 in Climate Change and Biodiversity. T. E. Lovejoy and L. Hannah, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Alley, R. B., J. Marotzke, W. D. Nordhaus, J. T. Overpeck, D. M. Peteet, R. A. Pielke, Jr., R. T. Pierrehumbert, P. B. Rhines, T. F. Stocker, L. D. Talley, and J. M. Wallace. 2003. Abrupt climate change. Science 299(5615):2005-2010.

Alley, W. M. 1984. The Palmer Drought Severity Index—Limitations and assumptions. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 23:1100-1109.

Alley, W. M.,T. E. Reilly, and F. O. Lehn. 1999. Sustainability of ground-water resources. In U.S. Geological Survey Circular. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. Available at Accessed December 3, 2009.

AMS (American Meteorological Society). 2009. Geoengineering the Climate System. A Policy Statement of the American Meteorological Society (adopted by the AMS Council on July 20, 2009). Washington, DC: AMS.

Anderies, J. M., M. A. Janssen, and E. Ostrom. 2004. A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecology and Society 9(1):18. Available at iss 1/art18/print.pdf. Accessed May 10, 2010.

Anderson, P. J., and J. F. Piatt. 1999. Community reorganization in the Gulf of Alaska following ocean climate regime shift. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 189:117-123.

Andersson, K., and E. Ostrom. 2008. Analyzing decentralized resource regimes from a polycentric perspective. Policy Sciences 41(1 ):71 -93.

Andreadis, K. M., and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2006. Trends in 20th century drought over the continental United States. Geophysical Research Letters 33(10).

Andreae, M. O., and P. Merlet. 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(4):955-966.

Angel, S., S. Sheppard, and D. Civco. 2005. The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion. Washington, DC: Department of Transport and Urban Development, The World Bank.

Angert, A., S. Biraud, C. Bonfils, C. C. Henning, W. Buermann, J. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, and I. Fung. 2005. Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:10823-10827.

Annan, J. D., J. C. Hargreaves, R. Ohgaito, A. Abe-Ouchi, and S. Emori. 2005. Efficiently constraining climate sensitivity with paleoclimate simulations. Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere 1:181-184.

Ansolabehere, S., and D. M. Koninsky. 2009. Public attitudes toward construction of new power plants. Public Opinion Quarterly 73(3):566-577.

Anthoff, D., R. S. J. Tol, and G.W. Yohe. 2009. Risk aversion, time preference, and the social cost of carbon. Environmental Research Letters 4(2):024002.

Anthoff, D., R. Nicholls, and R. Tol. 2010. The economic impact of substantial sea-level rise. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(4):321-335.

Antle, J. M. 2009. Agriculture and the Food System. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Archer, C. L., and M. Z. Jacobson. 2005. Evaluation of global wind power. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:D12110.

Archer, D., and B. Buffett. 2005. Time-dependent response of the global ocean clathrate reservoir to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 6.

Armitage, D., F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday, eds. 2007. Adaptive Co-Management: Collaboration, Learning, and Multi-Level Governance. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Arneth, A., N. Unger, M. Kulmala, and M. O. Andreae. 2009. Clean the air, heat the planet? Science 326(5953):672-673.

Arriaga, L., A. E. Castellanos, E. Moreno, and J. Alarcon. 2004. Potential ecological distribution of alien invasive species and risk assessment: A case study of buffel grass in arid regions of Mexico. Conservation Biology 18(6):1504-1514.

Arrigo, K. R., G. Van Dijken, and S. Pabi. 2008. Impact of a shrinking Arctic ice cover on marine primary production. Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19).

Arrow, K., R. Solow, P. R. Portney, E. E. Leamer, R. Radner, and H. Schuman. 1993. Report of the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation. Federal Register 58( 1993):4601 -4614.

Arrow, K., P. Dasgupta, L. Goulder, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, G. Heal, S. Levin, K.-G. Maler, S. Schneider, D. Starrett, and B. Walker. 2004. Are we consuming too much? Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(3):147-172.

Arunachalam, V. S., and E. L. Fleischer. 2008. The global energy landscape and materials innovation. MRS Bulletin 33(4):264-276.

Arvai, J., G Bridge, N. Dolsak, R. Franzese, T. Koontz, A. Luginbuhl, P. Robbins, K. Richards, K. Smith Korfmacher, B. Sohngen, J. Tansey, and A. Thompson. 2006. Adaptive management of the global climate problem: Bridging the gap between climate research and climate policy. Climatic Change 78:217-225.

ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers). 2009. Report Card for America's Infastructure. Available at http://www. Accessed April 29, 2010.

Asilomar Scientific Organizing Committee. 2010. Statement from the Asilomare International Conference on Climate Intervention Technologies, March 26, 2010. Climate Response Fund,

Asner, G. P. 2009.Tropical forest carbon assessment: Integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches. Environmental Research Letters 4(3).

Atkinson, G., and S. Mourato. 2008. Environmental cost-benefit analysis. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33(1):317-344.

Auffhammer, M., V. Ramanathan, and J. R. Vincent. 2006. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(52):19668-19672.

Auld, G., L. H. Gulbrandsen, and C. L. McDermott. 2008. Certification schemes and the impacts on forests and forestry. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33:187-211.

Backlund, P., A. Janetos, and D. Schimel. 2008. Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

Bäckstrand, K. 2006. Democratizing global environmental governance? Stakeholder democracy after the World Summit on Sustainable Development. European Journal of International Relations 12(4):467-498.

Baer, P., J. Harte, B. Haya, A. V. Herzog, J. Holdren, N. E. Hultman, D. M. Kammen, R. B. Norgaard, and L. Raymond. 2000. Climate change: Equity and greenhouse gas responsibility. Science 289:2287.

Baker, D. J., R. W. Schmitt, and C. Wunsch. 2007. Endowments and new institutions for long-term observations. Oceanography 20(4):10-14.

Bakun, A. 1990. Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling Science 247 (4939):198-201.

Bakun, A., and S. J. Weeks. 2004. Greenhouse gas buildup, sardines, submarine eruptions and the possibility of abrupt degradation of intense marine upwelling ecosystems. Ecology Letters 7 (11):1015-1023.

Bala, G., K. Caldeira, M. Wickett, T. J. Phillips, D. B. Lobell, C. Delire, and A. Mirin. 2007. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(16):6550-6555.

Baldocchi, D., and S. Wong. 2008. Accumulated winter chill is decreasing in the fruit growing regions of California. Climatic Change 87:S153-S166.

Bamber, J. L., R. L. Layberry, and S. P. Gogineni. 2001. A new ice thickness and bedrock data set for the Greenland ice sheet, measurement, data reduction, and errors. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D24):33773-33733, 33780.

Bamber, J. L., R. E. M. Riva, B. L. A. Vermeersen, and A. M. Lebrocq. 2009. Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science 324(5929):901-903.

Barbier, E. B., E. W. Koch, B. R. Silliman, S. D. Hacker, E. Wolanski, J. Primavera, E. F. Granek, S. Polasky, S. Aswani, L. A. Cramer, D. M. Stoms, C. J. Kennedy, D. Bael, C. V. Kappel, G. M. E. Perillo, and D. J. Reed. 2008. Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science 319(5861):321-323.

Barker, T., I. Bashmakov, A. Alharthi, M. Amann, L. Cifuentes, J. Drexhage, M. Duan, O. Edenhofer, B. Flannery, M. Grubb, M. Hoogwijk, F. I. Ibitoye, C. J. Jepma, W. A. Pizer, and K. Yamaji. 2007a. Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Barnett, J. 2001. The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era. London: Zed Books.

Barnett, J. 2003. Security and climate change. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 13(1 ):7-17.

Barnett, J. 2009. The prize of peace (is eternal vigilance): A cautionary editorial essay on climate geopolitics. Climatic Change 96(1-2):1-6.

Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, K. M. Achuta Rao, P. J. Gleckler, B. D. Santer, J. M. Gregory, and W. M. Washington. 2005a. Penetration of a warming signal in the world's oceans: Human impacts. Science 309:284-287.

Barnett, T. P., J. C. Adam, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2005b. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438(7066):303-309.

Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, H. G. Hidalgo, C. Bonfils, B. D. Santer, T. Das, G. Bala, A. W. Wood, T. Nozawa, A. A. Mirin, D. R. Cayan, and M. D. Dettinger. 2008. Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. Science 319(5866):1080-1083.

Bartlett, S. 2008. Climate change and urban children: Impacts and implications for adaptation in low- and middle-income countries. Environment and Urbanization 20(2):501-519.

Baskett, M. L., S. A. Levin, S. D. Gaines, and J. Dushoff. 2005. Marine reserve design and the evolution of size at maturation in harvested fish. Ecological Applications 15 (3):882-901.

Bates, B., and Z. Kundzewicz. 2008. Climate Change and Water, IPCC Technical Paper 6. Geneva: IPCC Secretariat.

Battin, J., M. Wiley, M. Ruckelshaus, R. Palmer, E. Korb, K. Bartz, and H. Imaki. 2007. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(16):6720-6725.

Batty, M. 2008. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science 319(5864):769-771.

Bayley, P. B. 1981. Fish yield from the Amazon in Brazil—comparison with African river yields and management possibilities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110(3):351-359.

Becker, G. S. 2010 (March 17). U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues (RL34198). CRS (Congressional Research Service). Text available at LexisNexis Congressional Research Digital Collection. http://www. Accessed July 13, 2010.

Beckley, B. D., F. G. Lemoine, S. B. Luthcke, R. D. Ray, and N. P. Zelensky. 2007. A reassessment of global and regional mean sea level trends from TOPEX and Jason-1 altimetry based on revised reference frame and orbits. Geophysical Research Letters 34(14).

Behrenfeld, M. J., R.T. O'malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. Mcclain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444 (7120):752-755.

Bell, M. L., F. Dominici, and J. M. Samet. 2005. A meta-analysis of time-series studies of ozone and mortality with comparison to the national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Epidemiology 16(4):436-445.

Bell, M. L., R. D. Peng, and F. Dominici. 2006. The exposure-response curve for ozone and risk of mortality and the adequacy of current ozone regulations. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(4):532-536.

Bell, M. L., R. Goldberg, C. Hogrefe, P. L. Kinney, K. Knowlton, B. Lynn, J. Rosenthal, C. Rosenzweig, and J. A. Patz. 2007. Climate change, ambient ozone, and health in 50 US cities. Climatic Change 82(1-2):61-76.

Beller-Simms, N., H. Ingram, D. Feldman, N. Mantua, K. Jacobs, and A. Waples, eds. 2008. Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations Using Seasonal to Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data—A Focus on Water Resources. Synthesis and Assessment Product 5.3. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program, 192 pp.

Bender, M. A., T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya, J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. T. Garner, and I. M. Held. 2010. Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science 327(5964):454-458.

Benestad, R. E. 2005. A review of the solar cycle length estimates. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L15714, doi:10.1029/2005GL023621.

Beniston, M. 2004. The 2003 heat wave in Europe: A shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 31(2).

Bernstein, P. L. 1998. Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York: John Wiley.

Betsill, M. M. 2001. Mitigating climate change in US cities: Opportunities and obstacles. Local Environment 6:393-406.

Betsill, M. M., and H. Bulkeley. 2006. Cities and the multilevel governance of global climate change. Global Governance 12(2):141-159.

Betsill, M. M., and B. G. Rabe. 2009. Climate change and multi-level governance: The emerging state and local roles. In Towards Sustainable Communities, 2nd edition. D. A. Mazmanian and M. E. Kraft, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Betts, R. A., O. Boucher, M. Collins, P. M. Cox, P. D. Falloon, N. Gedney, D. L. Hemming, C. Huntingford, C. D. Jones, D. M. H. Sexton, and M. J. Webb. 2007. Projected increase in continental runoff due to plant responses to increasing carbon dioxide. Nature 448(7157):1037-1041.

Biermann, F., M. M. Bestill, J. Gupta, N. Kanie, L. Lebel, D. Liverman, H. Schroeder, and B. Siebenhuner. 2009a. Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet. Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project. Bonn: Earth Systems Governance Project.

Biermann, F., P. Pattberg, H. van Asselt, and F. Zelli. 2009b. The fragmentation of global governance architectures: A framework for analysis. Global Environmental Politics 9(4):14-40.

Biermann, F., M. M. Betsill, S. C. Vieira, J. Gupta, N. Kanie, L. Lebel, D. Liverman, H. Schroeder, B. Siebenhuner, P. Z. Yanda, and R. Zondervan. 2010. Navigating the anthropocene: The Earth System Governance Project strategy paper. Current Opinion in EnvironmentalSustainability 2(3): 202-208.

Bishr, M., and L. Mantelas. 2008. A trust and reputation model for filtering and classifying knowledge about urban growth. GeoJournal 72(3):229-237.

Bindoff, N. L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A. Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quere, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C. K. Shum, L. D. Talley, and A. Unnikrishnan. 2007. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level. In Climate Change2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Bingen, J., and L. Busch, eds. 2006. Agricultural Standards: The Shape of the Global Food and Fiber System. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Black, J. S., P. C. Stern, and J. T. Elworth. 1985. Personal and contextual influences on household energy adaptations. Journal of Applied Psychology 70(1):3-21.

Blackford, J. C., and F. J. Gilbert. 2007. pH variability and CO2 induced acidification in the North Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 64 (1-4):229-241.

Blasing, T. J. 2008. Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available at Accessed December 3, 2009.

Boden, T. A., G. Marland, and R. J. Andres. 2009. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, doi:10.3334/CDIAC/00001.

Boesch. D., J. C. Field, and D. Scavia. 2000. The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. Report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team. U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Washintgon, DC: U.S. Global Change Research Program.

Bonan, G. B. 1999. Frost followed the plow: Impacts of deforestation on the climate of the United States. Ecological Applications 9(4):1305-1315.

Bonan, G. B. 2008. Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320(5882):1444-1449.

Borgerson, S. G. 2008. Arctic meltdown—The economic and security implications of global warming. Foreign Affairs 87(2):63-77.

Borlaug, N. 2007. Feeding a hungry world. Science 318:359-359.

Bosello, F., R. Roson, and R. S. J. Tol. 2007. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: Sea level rise. Environmental & Resource Economics 37(3):549-571.

Bostrom, A., and D. Lashof. 2007. Weather it's climate change? Pp. 31-43 in Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change. S. C. Moser and L. Dilling, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Bostrom, A., M. G. Morgan, B. Fischhoff, and D. Read. 1994. What do people know about global climate change? 1. Mental models. Risk Analysis 14(6):959-970.

Bounoua, L., R. Defries, G. J. Collatz, P. Sellers, and H. Khan. 2002. Effects of land cover conversion on surface climate. Climatic Change 52(1-2):29-64.

Bower, K., T. Choularton, J. Latham, J. Sahraei, and S. Salter. 2006. Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds. Atmospheric Research 82(1-2):328-336.

Boyer, T. P., S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, R. A. Locarnini, and H. E. Garcia. 2005. Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 19551998. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L01604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021791.

Boyle, E. A., and L. Keigwin. 1987. North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature. Nature 330:35-40.

Braden, J. B., D. G. Brown, J. Dozier, P. Gober, S. M. Hughes, D. R. Maidment, S. L. Schneider, P. W. Schultz, J. S. Shortle, S. K. Swallow, and C. M. Werner. 2009. Social science in a water observing system. Water Resources Research 45.

Bradley, R. S., M. Vuille, H. F. Diaz, and W. Vergara. 2006. Threats to water supplies in the tropical Andes. Science 312(5781):1755-1756.

Brauch, H. G. 2005. Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks in Environmental and Human Security. Bonn, Germany: Institute for Environment and Human Security.

Brazel, A., N. Selover, R. Vose, and G. Heisler. 2000. The tale of two climates—Baltimore and Phoenix urban LTER sites. Climate Research 15(2):123-135.

Brechin, S. R. 2003. Comparative public opinion and knowledge on global climatic change and the Kyoto Protocol: The US versus the rest of the world? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23(10):106-134.

Brewer, T. L. 2008. Climate change technology transfer: A new paradigm and policy agenda. Climate Policy 8(5):516-526.

Briffa, K. R., P. D. Jones, F. H. Schweingruber, and T. J. Osborn. 1998. Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years. Nature 393(6684):450-455.

Broad, K., A. S. P. Pfaff, and M. H. Glantz. 2002. Effective and equitable dissemination of seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts: Policy implications from the Peruvian fishery during El Nino 1997-98. Climatic Change 54(4):415-438.

Brody, S. D., S. Zahran, H. Grover, and A. Vedlitz. 2008. A spatial analysis of local climate change policy in the United States: Risk, stress, and opportunity. Landscape and Urban Planning 87(1):33-41.

Broecker, W. S. 1987. Unpleasant surprises in the greenhouse? Nature 328:123-126.

Broecker, W. S. 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582-1588.

Broecker, W. S. 2002. The Glacial World According to Wally, 3rd edition. Palisades, NY: Eldigio Press.

Brooke, C. 2008. Conservation and adaptation to climate change. Conservation Biology 22:1471-1476.

Bruker, G. 2005. Vulnerable populations: Lessons learnt from the summer 2003 heat waves in Europe. Eurosurveillance 10(7):147.

Bruinsma, J. 2003. World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030: An FAO Perspective. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Brundtland, G. H. 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: "Our Common Future." New York: United Nations.

Brutsaert, W., and M. B. Parlange. 1998. Hydrologic cycle explains the evaporation paradox. Nature 396(6706):30.

Bryden, H. L., H. R. Longworth, and S. A. Cunningham. 2005. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25 degrees North. Nature 438(7068):655-657.

BTS (Bureau of Transportation Statistics)/Federal Highway Administration. 2001. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2001—National Data and Analysis Tool CD. Washington, DC.

Buesseler, K. O., S. C. Doney, D. M. Karl, P. W. Boyd, K. Caldeira, F. Chai, K. H. Coale, H. J. W. De Baar, P. G. Falkowski, K. S. Johnson, R. S. Lampitt, A. F. Michaels, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Smetacek, S. Takeda, and A. J. Watson. 2008. Environment - Ocean iron fertilization - Moving forward in a sea of uncertainty. Science 319 (5860):162-162.

Bulkeley, H. 2001. Governing climate change: The politics of risk society. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 26(4):430-447.

Bulkeley, H. 2005. Reconfiguring environmental governance:Towards a politics of scales and networks. Political Geography 24(8):875-902.

Burby, R. J. 1998. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land Use Planning for Sustainable Communities. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Burger, N., L. Ecola, T. Light, and M. Toman. 2009. Evaluating Options for U.S. Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Using Multiple Criteria. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Burke, M. B., D. B. Lobell, and L. Guarino. 2009. Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environmental Change 19(3):317-325.

Burroughs, W. 2003. Climate into the 21st Century. World Meteorological Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 240 pp.

Burton I, L. Bizikova, T. Dickinson, and Y. Howard. 2007. Integrating adaptation into policy: Upscaling evidence from local to global. Climate Policy 7:371-376.

Busby, J. 2007. Climate Change and National Security: An Agenda for Action. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Caldeira, K., and L. Wood. 2008. Global and Arctic climate engineering: Numerical model studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366(1882):4039-4056.

Camp, C. D., and K. K. Tung. 2007. Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection. Geophysical Research Letters 34(14).

Campbell, K. M., J. Gulledge, J. R. Mcneill, J. Podesta, P. Ogden, L. Fuerth, R. J. Woolsey, A. T. Lennon, J. Smith, and R. Weitz. 2007. The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Ft. Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.

Campbell-Lendrum, D., and C. Corvalan 2007. Climate change and developing-country cities: Implications for environmental health and equity. Journal of Urban Health 84:109-117.

Campbell, J. E., D. B. Lobell, and C. B. Field. 2009. Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol. Science 324(5930):1055-1057.

Canadell, J. G., and M. R. Raupach. 2008. Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320(5882):1456-1457.

Canadell, J. G., C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, C. B. Field, E. T. Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, N. P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and G. Marland. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(47):18866-18870.

Cao, L., and K. Caldeira. 2008. Atmospheric CO2 stabilization and ocean acidification. Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19):5.

Carrico, A., M. P. Vandenbergh, P. C. Stern, G. T. Gardner, T. Dietz, and J. M. Gilligan. 2010. Energy and climate change: Key lessons for implementing the behavioral wedge. Journal of Energy and Environmental Law 1 (10-24).

Carroll, A., and C. Somerville. 2009. Cellulosic biofuels. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60(1):165-182.

Carson, R. T. 1997. Contingent valuation: Theoretical advances and empirical tests since the NOAA panel. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79(5):1501-1507.

Carson, R. T. 2010. The environmental Kuznets curve: Seeking empirical regularity and theoretical structure. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 4:3-23.

Cash, D. W. 2001."In order to aid in diffusing useful and practical information": Agricultural extension and boundary organizations. Science, Technology & Human Values 26(4):431-453.

Cash, D. W., and J. Buizer. 2005. Knowledge-Action Systems for Seasonal to Interannual Climate Forecasting: Summary of a Workshop. Report to the Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability, Policy and Global Affairs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Cash, D. W., W. C. Clark, F. Alcock, N. M. Dickson, N. Eckley, D. H. Guston, J. Jager, and R. B. Mitchell. 2003. Knowledge systems for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14):8086-8091.

Cash, D. W., J. C. Borck, and A. G. Patt. 2006a. Countering the loading-dock approach to linking science and decision making—comparative analysis of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasting systems. Science, Technology & Human Values 31(4):465-494.

Cash, D. W., N. W. Adger, F. Berkets, P. Garden, L. Lebel, P. Olsson, L. Pritchard, and O. Young. 2006b. Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society 11(2).

Cashore, B. 2002. Legitimacy and the privatization of environmental governance: How non-state market-driven (NSMD) governance systems gain rule-making authority. Governance 15(4):503-529.

Catarious, D. M., Jr., and R. H. Espach. 2009. Impacts of Climate Change on Colombia's National and Regional Security. CNA Corporation. Available at Accessed May 13, 2010.

Cavlovic,T., K. H. Baker, R. P. Berrens, and K. Gawande. 2000. A meta-analysis of Kuznets curve studies. Agriculture and Resource Economics Review 29:32-42.

Cayan, D., M. Tyree, M. Dettinger, H. Hidalgo, T. Das, E. Maurer, P. Bromirski, N. Graham, and R. Flick. 2009. Climate Change Scenarios and Sea Level Rise Estimates for the California 2008 Climate Change Scenarios Assessment. PIER Research Report CEC-500-2009-014. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.

Cazenave, A., and R. S. Nerem. 2004. Present-day sea level change: Observations and causes. Reviews of Geophysics 42(3).

Cazenave, A., D. P. Chambers, P. Cipollini, L. L. Fu, J. W. Hurell, M. Merrifield, S. Nerem, H. P. Plag, C. K. Shum, and J. Willis. 2010. The Challenge for Measuring Sea Level Rise and Regional and Global Trends. Plenary Paper presented at OceanObs09, September 21-25, 2009, Venice, Italy.

CCSP (Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research). 2003. Strategic plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Washington, D.C: U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

CCSP (Climate Change Science Program). 2007a. The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.2. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. A. W. King, L. Dilling, G. P. Zimmerman, D. M. Fairman, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, A. Z. Rose, and T. J. Wilbanks, eds. Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 242 pp.

CCSP. 2007b. Global Change Scenarios: Their Development and Use. Sub-report 2.1B of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, E. A. Parson, V. R. Burkett, K. Fisher-Vanden, D. W. Keith, L. O. Mearns, H. M. Pitcher, C. E. Rosenzweig, and M. D. Webster, eds. Washington, DC: Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy.

CCSP. 2007c. Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations. Sub-report 2.1A of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, L. Clarke, J. Edmonds, H. Jacoby, H. Pitcher, J. Reilly, and R. Richels, eds. Washington, DC: Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy.

CCSP. 2008a. Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J. L. Gamble, ed., and K. L. Ebi, F. G. Sussman, and T. J. Wilbanks, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

CCSP. 2008b. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, P. Backlund, A. Janetos, D. Schimel, J. Hatfield, K. Boote, P. Fay, L. Hahn, C. Izaurralde, B. A. Kimball, T. Mader, J. Morgan, D. Ort, W. Polley, A. Thomson, D. Wolfe, M. G. Ryan, S. R. Archer, R. Birdsey, C. Dahm, L. Heath, J. Hicke, D. Hollinger, T. Huxman, G. Okin, R. Oren, J. Randerson, W. Schlesinger, D. Lettenmaier, D. Major, L. Poff, S. Running, L. Hansen, D. Inouye, B. P. Kelly, L. Meyerson, B. Peterson, and R. Shaw, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 362 pp.

CCSP. 2008c. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, D. C. Bader, C. Covey, W. J. Gutowski, I. M. Held, K. E. Kunkel, R. L. Miller, R.T. Tokmakian, and M. H. Zhang, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

CCSP. 2008d. Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.4 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, S. H. Julius and J. M. West, eds.; J. S. Baron, L. A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B. D. Keller, M. A. Palmer, C. H. Peterson, and J. M. Scott, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 873 pp.

CCSP. 2008e. Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure. Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.4 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, A. R. Ravishankara, M. J. Kurylo, and C. A. Ennis, eds. Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, Department of Commerce, 240 pp.

CCSP. 2008f. Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate. Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, T. R. Karl, G. A. Meehl, C. D. Miller, S. J. Hassol, A. M. Waple, and W. L. Murray, eds. Washington, DC: National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, Department of Commerce, 164 pp.

CCSP, 2009a. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J. G. Titus (coordinating lead author), K. E. Anderson, D. R. Cahoon, D. B. Gesch, S. K. Gill, B. T. Gutierrez, E. R. Thieler, and S. J. Williams (lead authors). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 320 pp.

CCSP. 2009b. Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.2 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, D. B. Fagre, C. W. Charles, C. D. Allen, C. Birkeland, F. S. Chapin III, P. M. Groffman, G. R. Guntenspergen, A. K. Knapp, A. D. McGuire, P. J. MulhollandD. P. C. Peters, D. D. Roby, and G. Sugihara, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006. Heat-related deaths—United States, 1999-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(29):796-798. Available at Accessed on October 26, 2010.

CDWR (California Deptartment of Water Resources). 2008. Managing an Uncertain Future: Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for California's Water. Sacremento, CA: CDWR. Available at ClimateChangeWhitePaper.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010..

CNA Corporation. 2007. National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Available at http://securityandclimate.cna. org/report/. Accessed May 13, 2010.

CNA Corporation. 2009. Socioeconomic and Security Implications of Climate Change in China. Conference Paper. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 24 pp.

Chameides, W. L., P. S. Kasibhatla, J. Yienger, and H. Levy. 1994. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution and world food-production. Science 264(5155):74-77.

Chan, F., J. A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W. T. Peterson, and B. A. Menge. 2008. Emergence of Anoxia in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Science 319 (5865):920.

Changnon, S. 1969. Recent studies of urban effects on precipitation in the U.S. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 50(6): 411-421.

Changnon, S. A., K. E. Kunkel, and B. C. Reinke. 1996. Impacts and responses to the 1995 heat wave: A call to action. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(7): 1497-1506.

Chao, B. F., Y. H. Wu, and Y. S. Li. 2008. Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science 320(5873):212-214.

Chapin, F. S. I., P. A. Matson, and H. A. Mooney. 2002. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer.

Chapin, F. S., T. S. Rupp, A. M. Starfield, L. O. Dewilde, E. S. Zavaleta, N. Fresco, J. Henkelman, and A. D. Mcguire. 2003. Planning for resilience: Modeling change in human-fire interactions in the Alaskan boreal forest. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1 (5):255-261.

Chavez, F. P., J. Ryan, S. E. Lluch-Cota, and M. Niquen C. 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299(5604):217-221.

Cheung, W. W. L., V. W. Y. Lam, J. L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R. Watson, and D. Pauly. 2009. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries 10(3):235-251.

Chhatre, A., and A. Agrawal. 2008. Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(36):13286-13291.

Christensen, J. H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R. K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C. G. Menéndez, J. Raisanen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr, and P. Whetton. 2007. Regional climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Christensen, N. S., A. W. Wood, N.Voisin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and R. N. Palmer. 2004 The effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin. Climatic Change 62(1-3):337-363.

Christy, J. R., R. W. Spencer, and W. D. Braswell. 2000. MSU tropospheric temperatures: Dataset construction and radiosonde comparisons. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 17:1153-1170.

Christy, J. R., R. W. Spencer, W. B. Norris, and W. D. Braswell. 2003. Error estimates of version 5.0 of MSU-AMSU bulk atmospheric temperatures. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 20:613-629.

Church, J. A., and N. J. White. 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 33(1).

Church, J. A., N. J.White,T. Aarup, W. S. Wilson, P. L. Woodworth, C. M. Domingues, J. R. Hunter, and K. Lambeck. 2008. Understanding global sea levels: Past, present and future. Sustainability Science 3(1):9-22, doi:10.1007/s11625-008-0042-4.

Cifuentes, L., V. H. Borja-Aburto, N. Gouveia, G. Thurston, and D. L. Davis. 2001a. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Suppl 3):419-425.

Cifuentes, L., V. H. Borja-Aburto, N. Gouveia, G. Thurston, and D. Lee Davis. 2001 b. Hidden health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. Science 293(5533):1257-1259.

Clark, B., A. Jorgenson, and J. Kentor. 2010. Militarization and energy consumption: A test of treadmill of destruction theory in comparative perspective. International Journal of Sociology 40(2):23-43.

Clark, G., S. C. Moser, S. J. Ratick, K. Dow, W. B. Meyer, S. Emani, W. Jin, J. X. Kasperson, R. E. Kasperson, and H. E. Schwarz. 1998. Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: The case of Revere, MA, USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 3:59-82.

Clarke, L., J. Edmonds, V. Krey, R. Richels, S. Rose, and M. Tavoni. 2009. International climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 international scenarios. Energy Economics 31(2):S64-S81.

Cohen, B. 2006. Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technology in Society 28:63-80.

Cole, C. V., J. Duxbury, J. Freney, O. Heinemeyer, K. Minami, A. Mosier, K. Paustian, N. Rosenberg, N. Sampson, D. Sauerbeck, and Q. Zhao. 1997. Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49( 1 -3):221 -228.

Cole, M. A., and E. Neumayer. 2004. Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution. Population and Environment 26(1):5-21.

Collins, T. W. 2005. Households, forests, and fire hazard vulnerability in the American West: A case study of a California community. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1):23-37.

Confalonieri, U. 2007. Specific vulnerabilities. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85:827-828.

Confalonieri, U., B. Menne, R. Akhtar, K. L. Ebi, M. Hauengue, R. S. Kovats, B. Revich, and A. Woodward. 2007. Human health. Pp. 391-431 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Conroy, M. S. 2006. Branded:How the "Certification Revolution"Is Transforming Global Corporations. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society, Xvi, 335 pp.

Cook, B. I., R. L. Miller, and R. Seager. 2009. Amplification of the North American "Dust Bowl" drought through human-induced land degradation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(13):4997-5001.

Cooper, T. F., G. De 'Ath, K. E. Fabricius, and J. M. Lough. 2008. Declining coral calcification in massive Porites in two nearshore regions of the northern Great Barrier Reef. Global Change Biology 14 (3):529-538.

Cooper, O. R., D. D. Parrish, A. Stohl, M. Trainer, P. Nedelec, V. Thouret, J. P. Cammas, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, D. Tarasick, T. Leblanc, I. S. Mcdermid, D. Jaffe, R. Gao, J. Stith, T. Ryerson, K. Aikin, T. Campos, A. Weinheimer, and M. A. Avery. 2010. Increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America. Nature 463(7279):344-348.

Costanza, R., W. J. Mitsch, and J. W. Day. 2006. A new vision for New Orleans and the Mississippi delta: Applying ecological economics and ecological engineering. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(9):465-472.

Crabtree, G. W., and N. S. Lewis. 2007. Solar energy conversion. Physics Today 60(3):37-42.

Cramer, J. C., B. Hackett, P. P. Craig, E. Vine, M. Levine, T. M. Dietz, and D. Kowalczyk. 1984. Structural behavioral determinants of residential energy use: Summer electricity use in Davis. Energy 9(3):207-216.

Critchley, C. R. 2008. Public opinion and trust in scientists: The role of the research context, and the perceived motivation of stem cell researchers. Public Understanding of Science 17(3):309-327.

Crossett, K. M.,T. J. Culliton, P. C. Wiley, and T. R. Goodspeed. 2005. Population Trends Along the Coastal United States: 19802008. Silver Spring, MD: National Ocean Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Crowell, M., S. Edelman, K. Coulton, and S. McAfee. 2007. How many people live in coastal areas? Journal of Coastal Research 23(5):iii-vi.

Crowell, M., K. Coulton, C. Johnson, J. Westcott, D. Bellomo, S. Edelman, and E. Hirsch. 2010. An Estimate of the U.S. Population Living in 100-Year Coastal Flood Hazard Areas. Journal of Coastal Research 26(2): 201-211.

Crutzen, P. 2006. Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma? Climatic Change 77(3):211-220.

Crutzen, P. J., A. R. Mosier, K. A. Smith, and W. Winiwarter. 2008. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(2):389-395.

Csatho, B. M., J. F. Bolzan, C. J. Van Der Veen, A. F. Schenk, and D.-C. Lee. 1999. Surface velocities of a Greenland outlet glacier from high-resolution visible satellite imagery. Polar Geography 23(1):71-82.

Curriero, F. C., K. S. Heiner, J. M. Samet, S. L. Zeger, L. Strug, and J. A. Patz. 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the eastern United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 155:80-87.

Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev. 2003. A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 426:826-829.

Cutter, S. L., J. T. Mitchell, and M. S. Scott. 2000. Revealing the vulnerability of people and places: A case study of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90(4):713-737.

Cvetkovich, G., and R. E. Loefstedt, eds. 1999. Social Trust and the Management of Risk. London: Earthscan.

Dabelko, G. D. 2009. Planning for climate change: The security community's precautionary principle. Climatic Change 96(1-2):13-21.

Dai, A. G., K. E. Trenberth, and T. T. Qian. 2004. A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5(6):1117-1130.

Dai, A. G., T. T. Qian, K. E. Trenberth, and J. D. Milliman. 2009. Changes in continental freshwater discharge from 1948 to 2004. Journal of Climate 22(10):2773-2792.

Daily, G. C., and P. A. Matson. 2008. Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28):9455-9456.

Daily, G. C., S. Polasky, J. Goldstein, P. M. Kareiva, H. A. Mooney, L. Pejchar, T. H. Ricketts, J. Salzman, and R. Shallenberger. 2009. Ecosystem services in decision making: Time to deliver. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1):21-28.

Dailey, P. S., G. Zuba, G. Ljung, I. M. Dima, and J. Guin. 2009. On the relationship between North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and US hurricane landfall risk. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48(1):111-129.

Dalby, S. 2009. Security and Environmental Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Daley, R. 1991. Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series. New York: Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.

Darwin, R., M. Tsigas, J. Lewandrowski, and A. Raneses. 1995. World Agriculture and Climate Change: Economic Adaptations. Agricultural Economics Reports 33933, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Darwin, R. F., and R. S. J. Tol. 2001. Estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise. Environmental and Resource Economics 19(2):113-129.

Das, S., and J. R. Vincent. 2009. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(18):7357-7360.

Dasgupta, P., and F. Ramsey. 2008. Comments on the Stern Review's Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Available at Accessed May 7, 2010.

Dasgupta, S., B. Laplante, H. Wang, and D. Wheeler. 2002. Confronting the environmental Kuznets curve. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(1):147-168.

Davis, B., and D. Belkin. 2008. Food inflation, riots spark worries for world leaders: IMF, World Bank push for solutions; Turmoil in Haiti. The Wall Street Journal, April 14.

Davis, R. E., P. C. Knappenberger, P. J. Michaels, and W. M. Novicoff. 2004. Seasonality of climate-human mortality relationships in US cities and impacts of climate change. Climate Research 26(1):61 -76.

Davis, S. C., S. W. Diegel, and R. G. Boundy. 2008. Transportation Energy Data Book, 27th ed. ORNL-6981. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Davis, S. C., K. J. Anderson-Teixeira, and E. H. DeLucia. 2009. Life-cycle analysis and the ecology of biofuels. Trends in Plant Science 14(3):140-146.

Day, J. W., D. F. Boesch, E. J. Clairain, G. P. Kemp, S. B. Laska, W. J. Mitsch, K. Orth, H. Mashriqui, D. J. Reed, L. Shabman, C. A. Simenstad, B. J. Streever, R. R. Twilley, C. C. Watson, J. T. Wells, and D. F. Whigham. 2007. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Science 315(5819):1679-1684.

Delta Vision Blue Ribbon Task Force. 2007. Delta Vision: Our Vision for the California Delta. Sacramento, CA: Resources Agency.

Defries, R., and L. Bounoua. 2004. Consequences of land use change for ecosystem services: A future unlike the past. GeoJournal 61(4):345-351.

Defries, R., F. Achard, S. Brown, M. Herold, D. Murdiyarso, B. Schlamadinger, and C. De Souza. 2007. Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Environmental Science and Policy 10(4):385-394.

DeFries, R. S., T. Rudel, M. Uriarte, and M. Hansen. 2010. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience 3:178-181, doi:10.1038/NGE0756.

Denholm, P., E. Ela, B. Kirby, and M. Milligan. 2010. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation. NREL Report TP-6A2-47187. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, 61 pp.

Department of Commerce. 1975. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States.

Dessai, S., and M. Hulme. 2007. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: A case study on water resources management in the east of England. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 17(1):59-72.

Dessai, S., W. N. Adger, M. Hulme, J. Turnpenny, J. Kohler, and R. Warren. 2004. Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change—an editorial essay. Climatic Change 64(1-2):11-25.

Diamond, J. M. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking.

Dickson, B., I. Yashayaev, J. Meincke, B. Turrell, S. Dye, and J. Holfort. 2002. Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 416:832-837.

Dietz, S., and N. Stern. 2008. Why economic analysis supports strong action on climate change: A response to the Stern Review's critics. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 2( 1 ):94-113.

Dietz, T. 1994. What should we do? Human ecology and collective decision making. Human Ecology Review 1:301-309.

Dietz, T., and A. D. Henry. 2008. Context and the commons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:13189-13190.

Dietz, T., E. Ostrom, and P. C. Stern. 2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302(5652):1907-1912.

Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2007. Driving the human ecological footprint. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(1):13-18.

Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2009a. Environmentally efficient well-being: Rethinking sustainability as the relationship between human well-being and environmental impacts. Human Ecology Review 16(1):114-123.

Dietz, T., G. T. Gardner, J. Gilligan, P. C. Stern, and M. P. Vandenbergh. 2009b. Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(44):18452-18456.

Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2009c. Human driving forces of global change: Dominant perspectives. In Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Diffenbaugh, N. S., C. H. Krupke, M. A. White, and C. E. Alexander. 2008. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management. Environmental Research Letters 3(4).

Dilling, L., and B. Farhar. 2007. Making it easy: Establishing energy efficiency and renewable energy as routine best practice. In Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change, S. Moser and L. Dilling, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Dlugokencky, E. J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P.Tans. 2003. Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state?, Geophysical Research Letters 30(19):1992, doi:10.1029/2003GL018126.

Dlugokencky, E. J., L. Bruhwiler, J. W. C. White, L. K. Emmons, P. C. Novelli, S. A. Montzka, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, A. M. Crotwell, J. B. Miller, and L.V. Gatti. 2009. Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (18):L18803.

DOD (U.S. Department of Defense). 2010 (February 1). The Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC: DOD.

Dodman, D. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization 21(1 ):185-201.

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2004. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Wind and Hydropower Technologies. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2006. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Wind and Hydropower Technologies. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2008a. 20% Wind Energy by2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at Accessed May 8, 2010.

DOE. 2008b. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale. Report from the Workshop Held November 6-7. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2009a. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://www. Accessed May 7, 2010.

DOE. 2009b. Science Challenges and Future Directions: Climate Change Integrated Assessment Research. Report from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Workshop on Integrated Assessment, November 2008.

DOE. 2009c. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices. Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2010. Fossil Energy Techline: DOE Awards Cooperative Agreement for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at html. Accessed March 12, 2010.

DOI (Department of the Interior). 2009. Salazar Launches DOI Climate Change Response Strategy. Available at http://www. Accessed May 3, 2010.

Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas. 2009. Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1:169-192.

Donner, L. J., and W. G. Large. 2008. Climate modeling. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33(1 ):1-17.

Donoghue, E. R., M. Nelson, G. Rudis, R. I. Sabogal, J. T. Watson, G. Huhn, and G. Luber. 2003. Heat-related deaths—Chicago, Illinois, 1996-2001, and United States, 1979-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 52(26);610-613

DOT (Department of Transportation). 2008. Research and Innovative Technology Administration. National Transportation Statistics. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Available at statistics. Accessed May 3, 2010.

Douglas, M. 1985. Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences. Social Research Perspectives: Occasional Reports on Current Topics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Dow, K., R. Kasperson, and M. Bohn. 2006. Exploring the social justice implications of adaptation and vulnerability. Pp. 79-96 in Fairness in Adaptation to Climatic Change, N. Adger, J. Paavola, S. Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dueck, T. A., R. D. Visser, H. Poorter, S. Persijn, A. Gorissen, W. D. Visser, A. Schapendonk, J. Verhagen, J. Snel, F. J. M. Harren, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. Verstappen, H. Bouwmeester, L. A. C. J. Voesenek, and A. V. D. Werf. 2007. No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: A 13C-labelling approach. New Phytologist 175(1):29-35.

Durfee, J. L. 2006. "Social change" and "status quo" framing effects on risk perception: An exploratory experiment. Science Communication 27(4) :459-495.

Durieux, L., L. A. T. Machado, and H. Laurent. 2003. The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of deforestation. Remote Sensing of Environment 86(1):132-140.

Dutta, K., E. A. G. Schuur, J. C. Neff, and S. A. Zimov. 2006. Potential carbon release from permafrost soils of Northeastern Siberia. Global Change Biology 12(12):2336-2351.

Dyurgerov, M., and M. Meier. 2005. Glaciers and the changing earth system: A 2004 snapshot. Occasional Paper, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Boulder, CO: Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Available at

Eagle, N., A. Pentland, and D. Lazer. 2009. Inferring friendship network structure by using mobile phone data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(36):15274-15278.

Eakin, H., and J. Conley. 2002. Climate variability and the vulnerability of ranching in southeastern Arizona: A pilot study. Climate Research 21(3):271-281.

Eakin, H., and M. C. Lemos. 2006. Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change 16:7-18.

Eakin, H., and A. L. Luers. 2006. Assessing the vulnerability of social-environmental systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:365-394.

Eakin, H., E. L. Tompkins, D. R. Nelson, and J. M. Anderies. 2009. Hidden costs and disparate uncertainties: Trade-offs in approaches to climate policy. Pp. 212-226 in Living with Climate Change: Are There Limits to Adaptation? W. N. Adger et al., eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Early, J. T. 1989. Space-based solar shield to offset greenhouse effect. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 42:567-569.

Easterling, D. R., and M. F. Wehner. 2009. Is the climate warming or cooling? Geophysical Research Letters 36:L08706, doi:10.1029/2009GL037810.

Easterling, W. E., P. K. Aggarwal, P. Batima, K. M. Brander, L. Erda, S. M. Howden, A. Kirilenko, J. Morton, J.-F. Soussana, J. Schmid-huber, and F. N.Tubiello. 2007. Food, fibre and forest products. Pp. 273-313 in Climate Change2007:Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Ebi, K. L., and G. Mcgregor. 2008. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(11 ):1449-1455.

Ebi, K. L., J. Balbus, P. L. Kinney, E. Lipp, D. Mills, M. S. Oneill, and M. L. Wilson. 2009. US funding is insufficient to address the human health impacts of and public health responses to climate variability and change. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(6):857-862.

Eddy, J. A. 1976. Maunder minimum. Science 192(4245):1189-1202.

Eden, S. 2009. The work of environmental governance networks: Traceability, credibility and certification by the Forest Stewardship Council. Geoforum 40:383-394.

EIA (Energy Information Agency). 2007. Renewable Energy Annual, 2005. Washington, DC: DOE.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2009. Annual Energy Review 2008. Washington, DC: EIA. Available at http://www. Accessed May 5, 2010.

EISA (Energy Independence and Security Act) of 2007. P. L. 110-140, December 19, 2007.

Eliasson, I. 2000. The use of climate knowledge in urban planning. Landscape and Urban Pla

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment