Potential for Changes in Cities to Limit Future Climate Change

As the geographical focus of most production and consumption, cities offer opportunities to reduce GHG emissions in both absolute and per capita terms, while also improving air quality and urban heat island effects. Many of these opportunities are ultimately tied to the design and geometry of cities, which can foster more or less energy use and emissions per capita as well as shape urban ecosystem function and biotic diversity. Altering surface reflectivity through changes in impervious features (such as white and green roofs) is another potential action that warrants consideration in many cities (see Chapter 15).

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