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Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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6 CHANGES IN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM 183

Factors Influencing Earth's Climate, 184 Observed Climate Change, 201 Future Climate Change, 216 Research Needs, 228

7 SEA LEVEL RISE AND THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT 235

Observed Sea Level Changes, 236 Causes of Sea Level Rise, 238 Projections of Future Sea Level Rise, 243

Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Other Climate Changes on Coastal

Environments, 247 Responding to Sea Level Rise, 251 Research Needs, 252

8 FRESHWATER RESOURCES 257

Sensitivity of Freshwater Resources to Climate Change, 258 Historical and Future Changes in Freshwater, 259 Managing Freshwater in a Changing Climate, 266 Research Needs, 267

9 ECOSYSTEMS, ECOSYSTEM SERVICES, AND BIODIVERSITY 271 Terrestrial Ecosystems, 273

Marine Ecosystems, 280 Research Needs, 288

10 AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, AND FOOD PRODUCTION 291 Crop Production, 292

Livestock Production, 296

Fisheries and Aquaculture Production, 297

Science to Support Limiting Climate Change by Modifying Agricultural and

Fishery Systems, 300 Science to Support Adaptation in Agricultural Systems, 303 Food Security, 305 Research Needs, 306

11 PUBLIC HEALTH 309

Extreme Temperatures and Thermal Stress, 311 Severe Weather, 313 Infectious Diseases, 314 Air Quality, 314

Other Health Effects of Climate Change, 317 Protecting Vulnerable Populations, 318 Research Needs, 319

12 CITIES AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT 323

Role of Cities in Driving Climate Change, 324 Impacts of Climate Change on Cities, 326 Science to Support Limiting Future Climate Change, 328 Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change, 329 Research Needs, 330

CONTENTS

13 TRANSPORTATION 333

Role of Transportation in Driving Climate Change, 334 Reducing Transportation-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 336 Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation, 342

Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change in the Transportation Sector, 342 Research Needs, 344

14 ENERGY SUPPLY AND USE 349

Energy Consumption, 350 Reductions in Energy Demand, 352 Energy Efficiency Improvements, 353

Energy Sources that Reduce Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, 354

Carbon Dioxide Removal Approaches, 366

Energy Carriers, Transmission, and Storage, 368

Science to Support Technology Deployment, 369

Likely Impacts of Climate Change on Energy System Operations, 369

Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change, 373

Research Needs, 374

15 SOLAR RADIATION MANAGEMENT 377

History of Solar Radiation Management Proposals, 378 Proposed Solar Radiation Management Approaches, 380 Possible Unintended Consequences, 382 Governance issues, 384 Ethical Issues, 384 Research Needs, 385

16 NATIONAL AND HUMAN SECURITY 389

The Relationship Between Climate and National Security, 392 Treaty Verification, 395

The Relationship Between Climate and Human Security, 396 Research Needs, 398

17 DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING, AND EVALUATING CLIMATE POLICIES 401

Types of Climate Policies and Agreements, 402

Research Challenges Associated with Policy Design and Implementation, 406 Research Needs, 416

REFERENCES 421 APPENDIXES

A America's Climate Choices: Membership Lists 475

B Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change: Statement of Task 479

C Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change: Biographical Sketches 481

D Uncertainty Terminology 491

E The United States Global Change Research Program 493 F Geoengineering Options to Respond to Climate Change: Steps to Establish a Research Agenda (A Workshop to Provide Input to the America's Climate

Choices Study) 497

G Acronyms and Initialisms 501

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