Cities face all the challenges that any other sector encounters in regard to adaptation, but research on urban adaptation has only recently begun in earnest. Attention to date has focused on infrastructure and strategies such as emergency preparedness and response. In addition, where resource stresses have already mounted, such as water shortages in the American West, local and regional entities have begun planning to address their vulnerability to climate change in the context of specific natural resources. Understanding options for adaptation and preparing to adapt in cities requires attention to differences in vulnerability among subpopulations (e.g., different economic groups, age groups) and across cities of different size, structure, and location.
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