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Fig. 17.6. Diagrams of heat interaction between underground pipelines and soils with respect to relations between mean annual temperature tmean, minimum tmin and maximum tmax gas temperatures: a - tmean > 0°C, tmin > 0°C ;b- tmean > 0°C; tmin < 0°C; c - tmean < 0°C, tmax > 0°C; d-tmean < 0°C, tmax < 0°C; 1 - 3 - soil (1 - perennially frozen; 2 - seasonally frozen; 3 - thawed); I, II - regions of permafrost and non-permafrost ground respectively.

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