A. Grading, chemical-mineral ground composition and exchange cation composition. B Organic matter composition.

A. Grading, chemical - mineral composition of soil.

B. Rock jointing and porosity.

C. Conditions of ground water feeding, movement and run-off.

D. Thermal state, temperature regime of ground as well as conditions of freezing and moisture migration in the soil.

A. Textural-structural features of ground (including the nature of ground ice and soil cryogenic structure)

B. Ground thermal state and temperature regime.

C. Ground freezing-thawing conditions.

Complete or partial replacement of the ground under amelioration; mud injection grouting, bituminous grouting, silica enrichment, impregnation of the ground by synthetic resin; wash-out of fines from the ground, composition and content of exchangable cations in the ground; repeated change of ground thermal state; lime pretreatment of acid soils and application of gypsum to saline-like soils; soil humification and mineral and bacterial fertilizer application to soils.

Supply of water (irrigation) and dewatering (drainage) of soil; frost drainage; electroosmosis and electro-chemical ground stabilization; change of composition and content of exchange cations in the ground; mud injection, grouting, bituminous grouting, silicatization, impregnation of the ground by synthetic resin; deep loosening and artificial consolidation; change of ground water level; soil freezing and thawing and freezing rate control.

Deep soil loosening; soil consolidation with the help of explosion; soil consolidation and deconsolidation with the help of vibrators; freezing-thawing change of the ground freezing conditions and direct temperature regime control.

Table 19.2. (Continued)

Classes of methods

Sub-classes of methods

Parameters through which the natural elements being changed can be transformed

Methods of control

A group of methods changing temperature regime and heat state of the ground under amelioration by using additional heat sources and flows

Water as heat carrier

Air as heat carrier

A. Filtration index of ground in thawed state.

B. Nature of ground ice, soil cryogenic structures.

C. Slope of the locality.

D. Temperature of water used, thermal properties of soils and their temperature regime.

A. Composition; moisture content and properties of ground.

B. Nature of ground ice, cryogenic soil structures and their temperature regime.

C. Size of the cooling system surface.

D. Volume (rate) of air in the cooling system and its temperature.

Bore holes; seepage - drainage; sprinkling infiltration; conductive - seepage (thermal baths)

Natural ground freezing in the course of interaction between the atmospheric air and bare ground surface; cooling devices (ventilated cellars, ventilating conduits, ventilating pipes).

Steam, fire, various 'heat injectors'

00 c

Electric power

Thermo-chemical mixtures

A. Ground composition, moisture content and properties.

B. Ice content and cryogenic structure of soils and their temperature regime.

C. Volume (rate) of flow of heat carrier through the ground and its parameters.

D. 'Heat injection' sizes and their temperature.

A. Ice content, cryogenic structures, unfrozen moisture content, ground temperature regime and properties.

B. Voltage applied to the electrodes.

C. Shape and sizes of electrodes.

A. Composition, moisture content and properties of soils and their temperature regime.

B. Kind of thermo-chemical mixtures.

C. Amount (volume) of mixtures used.

Steam point thawing, methods of borehole thawing using artificially heated water, surface run-off of hot water; thawing by 'ignition' and by heaters; placement of hot rock material (quarry stone)

Volume heating of soil by electric current drawn through the ground; electric heaters.

Coolers; cooling installations of various types; zeroters; use of heat effect of physico-chemical reactions.

The amelioration work includes as a rule not one but a number of methods complementing each other.

0 0

Post a comment