Notes on translations and definitions

In transliterations, the system used by the Scott Polar Research Institute's bibliographic services has been followed. The following dictionaries, glossaries and similar items have been used:

Challinor's Dictionary of Geology, 6th edn (Ed. Wyatt). 1986. University of Wales Press, Cardiff. 374 pp.

Slovar' Sokrashcheniy Russkogo Yazyka, 1977 [Dictionary of Abbreviations of the Russian Language].

Elsevier's Dictionary of Earth Sciences: Russian-English (compilers: K.P. Bhatnagar amd S.K. Battacharya) Elsevier, 1991. 1023pp.

Everdingen, R. O. van. 1994. Multi-language Glossary of Permafrost and Related Ground-ice Terms. International Permafrost Assn., Permafrost Terminology Working Group. 311 pp.

Glossary of Permafrost and Related Ground-ice Terms. Permafrost Subcommittee, Associate Committee for Geotechnical Research, National Research Council Canada, Technical Memorandum 142. 1988.156 pp.

Oxford English Dictionary, 1953. 12 vols. (incl. supplement of 1973 and 1986, 4 vols.). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Oswell, J.M., Doorduyn, A., Costin A. and A. Hanna. 1995. A comparison of CIS and ASTM soil classification systems. Proc. 48f/i. Canadian Geotechnical Society Conference. 573-582.

Poppe, V. and R. J. E. Brown. 1976. Russian-English Glossary of Permafrost Terms. Associate Committee for Geotechnical Research, National Research Council Canada. 25 pp.

Romanovsky, N. N., Konishchev V. N. and G. E. Rosenbaum. 1992. Russian-English Glossary of Geocryology Terms. International Permafrost Assn., Permafrost Terminology Working Group. 59 pp. (pre-publication copy).

Sanger, F.J. 1973. Editor's Note on Russian Terms for Soils. 2nd International Conference on Permafrost. USSR Contribution. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, xi-xii.

The Concise Dictionary of Earth Sciences (Eds. Allaby A. and Allaby, M.) Oxford University Press. 1990. 410 pp

The Oxford Russian Dictionary (Eds.: Falla, Unbegaun and Howlett) 1993. Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford, New York. 1340 pp.

Russian words accepted in literal translation, the meanings of which may be unfamiliar or unusual

(Unless otherwise noted, the references are to items listed above.)

Aleurite: unconsolidated deposits, grain size 0.05 to 0.005 mm. Aleurolite is similar, but consolidated (in the geological, not geotechnical, sense, - van Everdingen, pers. comm.)

Ataxite, -itic: disorder, -disordered, irregular

BAM: Baikal-Amur Mainline

ChPI: Chitinskiy Politekhnicheskiy Institut

Cryolithozone, Cryolithic zone: usually synonymous with permafrost (regions) -including extensive areas where permafrost may be discontinuous or even rare. Indeed phenomena of seasonally freezing soils found far distant from permafrost are referred to as typical of the cryolithozone

Cryolite: ice considered as a mineral in the ground (not to be confused with the mineral cryolite, Na3 A1 F6)

Cryopeg: ground which is unfrozen because of dissolved salts (usually below permafrost)

Crystallisation heat: latent heat of fusion

Dell: this transliteration, according to Romanovsky et al. (1992), means indeed, a small wooded valley (Oxford English Dictionary)

Deserption: thermal or cryogenic fracture or breakup

Deserptium: surficial creep deposit resulting from volume change (Poppe and Brown, 1976)

Dispersion, dispersed: 1. fineness of particles 2. dispersed (loose) nature of material Dust, dusty: a grain size fraction (0.05-0.01). Corresponds to coarse silt in English. Eluvium: residual deposit following washing-out of fine material Golets ice: 'bold mountain ice' (Romanovsky et al. 1992)., 'ice accumulated under a coarse surface layer from meltwater in spring' (p. 267 this book)

Gosstroy: Gosudarstvennyy Komitet po Delam Stroitel'stva (State Committee for

Construction Affairs) Illuvial: material moved into stratum by percolating water Intercalated: inserted after deposition of bed (used, e.g. of ice layers or lenses)

Khasyrey: thermokarst depression in epigenetic permafrost (contr. alas formed in syngenetic permafrost, with melting of syngenetic wedges). According to Romanovsky et al. 1992, a local. West Siberian term

Laida: coastal plain covered by tidal water (Evgenny Chuvilin, pers. comm.)

LGI: Leningradskiy Gornyy Institut (Leningrad Mining Institute)

Massive: (1) having ice in pores only; thus no segregation ice, and the ice masses are essentially no larger than pore size. (2) large (of a body of ground) MISI Moskovskiy Inzhenerno-Stroitel'nyy Institut (Moscow Engineering and Construction Institute)

MSU: Moscow State University (this is an English abréviation, the transliterated Russian being MGU)

NIIOSP: Nauchno-Issledovatel'skiy Institut Osnovaniy i Podzemnykh Sooruz-heniy (Scientific Research Institute for Foundations and Underground Structures)

Oligo-mictic: consisting of one to two dominant minerals (Oxford English Dictionary -'word of Russian origin')

Paludification: swampiness, conversion to swamp or marsh

Paludial: pertaining to marshes

PNIIIS: Proizvodstvennyy i Nauchno-Issledovatel'skiy Institut po Inzhenernym Izyskaniyam v Stroitel'stve (Industrial and Scientific Research Institute for Constructing Engineering)

Polynya: an area of open water in an otherwise extensive ice cover (on river, sea etc.)

RSFSR: Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic)

Riphaean: Russian term for a period of Mid-proterozoic, from 1650 Ma to 680 Ma.

Rudaceous: rubbly (Oxford English Dictionary). Grains coarser than sand size.

Schlieren: repeated small ice lenses (German origin, here apparently often synonymous with 'streaks')

Suffosion: a spreading out into a sub-stratum (e.g. filling of a solution cavity or a cavity from melting ice)

Tripoli: non-diatomaceous sandstone, heavily-weathered in situ, therefore friable. (Metcalf, Robert W. 1946. Tripoli. Information Circular. U. S. Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Mines, l.C. 7371.)

Tuffolava: extrusive rocks intermediate between tuffs and lavas (Challinors Dictionary of Geology).

USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

VSEGINGEO: Vsesoyuznyy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skiy Institut Gidrogeologii i Inzhenernoy Geologi (Ail-Union Scientific Research Institute for Hydrology and Engineering Geology)

Yedoma: remnants of ice-rich pleistocene plain, appear as hills following erosion. (Potapov, Eugene. 1993. Ecology and Energetics of Rough-legged Buzzard in the Kolyma River Lowlands. Thesis, D. Phil., Oxford.) See also pp. 312-15.

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