Engineering geological surveys, design work and construction are carried out in conformity with documented norms. In accordance with the System of Norms for Construction adopted by the USSR State Construction Committee in 1983, they are subdivided into Ail-Union, department and republic normative documents.
The Ail-Union normative documents are obligatory for all enterprises, organizations and amalgamations subordinate to the Ail-Union, departmental and republic bodies, carrying out work in a particular industry. Thus the All-Union Construction Norms and Regulations is obligatory for all the organizations carrying out construction as well as preconstruction work such as engineering survey and design, independently of their position and departmental ranking. The documents of the former USSR Ministry of
Geology are obligatory for all organizations carrying out exploration. The Ail-Union documents of the other ministries and departments are of a similar character.
The Construction Norms and Regulations dictate the main points for performing works. This document contains the main fundamental requirements and regulations, dictates the main survey and design problems, establishes the procedure for their solving, dictates the types and the character of work, establishes requirements for work organization and the operation of buildings and structures. The Building Regulations are documents having the character of a directive so all the engineering staff of surveying and designing organizations must be acquainted with their requirements.
Clearly it is very difficult to consider all the main survey and design problems as applied to various kinds of construction in one document. Therefore various departmental Building Regulations are issued for industrial, civil, hydrotechnical, highway and other kinds of engineering. The main documents regulating survey and design work in the permafrost zone are Building Norms and Regulations II-18-76 'Bases and foundations on permafrost', and Building Norms and Regulations 2.02.07-87 'Engineering survey for construction. The Building Norms and Regulations 2.05.02-85 'Automobile roads', the Building Norms and Regulations 2.05.08-85 'Airfields' and other documents touch on designing in the permafrost zone to some extent as well.
The departmental (branch) Building Regulations refer to normative documents. Contrary to the All-Union normative documents they regulate the work specific to a given ministry or department. Clearly the departmental normative documents must not be in contradiction with the All-Union ones. They can merely develop and supplement the latter, reflecting the construction typical for each ministry or department. The former USSR ministries and departments approved departmental normative documents in accordance with the rights given them in agreement with Gosstroy of the former USSR. They are obligatory for all the organizations, institutions and enterprises of the ministry (department) which has approved these documents. These documents can be obligatory for organizations of other ministries and departments if they are approved by the relevant ministry or department.
The republic Building Regulations establish requirements for design, engineering survey, construction and operation of buildings and structures taking into consideration the peculiar conditions (natural, economic, etc.) of the republic. These documents are approved by the Union Republic Gosstroy or by other republic bodies in keeping with the rights given them. The republican normative documents are obligatory for all the organizations, institutions and enterprises carrying out design work and construction for structures situated on the territory of the given republic independently of their departmental subordination. These documents must not be in contradiction with the Ail-Union normative documents nor duplicate them.
Normative documents contain requirements having a direct relationship only to the subject under standardization. They include enumeration of fundamental tenets necessary for carrying out given kinds of work such as survey and design work.
Many kinds of work which are a part of survey and design can be carried out by various methods. Each method is used within particular limits and has its own accuracy and cost depending on numerous natural and engineering factors. Therefore in the majority of cases the Building Norms and Regulations must not simply regulate the use of one or another method. Thus, for example, the Building Norms and Regulations 2.02.07-87 indicate that in the course of survey it is necessary to make ground temperature observations in bore holes, to determine depths of ground freezing and thawing using various methods. In an effort to unify work performance by one or another method, the normative documents have been prepared regulating work carried out by the unified procedure using equipment of the same kind as far as its main parameters are concerned. Such documents are termed standards in the State standardization system.
Standards in the former USSR are divided into the following categories: former USSR State standards; departmental standards; republican standards; standards for enterprises. Only the State standards are used in engineering geological survey and design practice.
The standards are divided into the following types: for technical conditions, parameters, types, marks, structures and sizes, for specifications, test methods, rules, markings, packing, transportation and storage etc. The standards for test methods and for transportation and storage of samples are used in engineering geocryological survey.
To develop normative documents scientific research institutes and designing organizations develop special handbooks (guides). The whole text of the standard document is retained in these guides. Not being the normative documents they develop the main points of the relevant Building Regulations, departmental Building Regulations or republic Building Regulations in detail, contain examples and calculation algorithms, textual, tabulated and graphical data and other reference sources necessary for survey, design work and construction. The main purpose of these handbooks is to help specialists to understand and to learn the normative document. After the name of the handbook the name and the imprint of the normative document for which it has been developed are given. To develop a single document, one or a few handbooks can be issued depending on its content.
In addition to normative documents and handbooks, various ministries and departments publish a great number of documents of an advisory and procedural character (recommendations, directions as to methods, etc.). They are prepared for subsidiary and individual kinds of work for which there is insufficient experience in practice, with respect to methods of performance, methods of design, testing or determination. The main purpose of these documents is to help in promoting the results of scientific research being carried out by research and design organizations, into survey and design practice as soon as possible. Individual points of the recommendations and methods can be included in the normative documents after evaluation.
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