14.1 History of the development of permafrost and its distribution on the planet 409

14.2 Reasons for the development and evolution of permafrost in the

Earth's history 418

14.3 The history of geocryological development and the main stages of permafrost formation on the territory of the former USSR in the

Late Cenozoic 422

15 Zonal and regional features of present-day geocryological conditions in the territories of the former USSR 435

15.1 Distribution of permafrost and spatial variations of its mean annual temperature 435

15.2 Structure of the permafrost and spatial variability of its thickness 445

15.3 Distribution of main types of seasonal ground thawing and freezing 459

16 Principles and methods for regional geocryological investigations 464

16.1 Geocryological survey as the basis for regional investigation of the seasonally and perennially freezing zones 464

16.2 The methods and carrying-out of geocryological surveys 472

16.3 Classification and regionalization in the course of geocryological survey 478

16.4 Regionalization in geocryological mapping 482

V Rational use of frozen ground and environmental protection in the course of economic development of the permafrost regions

17 The effect of different types of development on the natural geocryological environment 495

17.1 The basic principles of rational use of frozen ground in the course of the economic development of the permafrost regions 495

17.2 Regional environmental change in the course of development of extensive areas within the permafrost zone 17.3 Economic development of the permafrost regions with various kinds of construction

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