modulus (Ee, Pa) and the coefficient of transverse elasticity (Poisson's ratio p) of the frozen soils.

Modulus of normal elasticity (Ee = a/e) of frozen soils is within the range 300 to 30000MPa, which is 10 to 100 times greater than this modulus in unfrozen soils and its value is dependent on a number of factors: composition, structure, temperature of the frozen soil and external stress. At an adequately low temperature the elasticity modulus of sandy-clayey frozen soils can exceed that of concrete.

The modulus of normal elasticity increases as the amount of the fine granular component of the frozen soils decreases. The highest values are typical of the frozen sand (from 820 to 22500 M Pa, from -0.2 to -10.2 °C), the lowest of the frozen clay (from 680 to 2780 MPa, from t = —1.2 to t = 8.4°C). The Ee values of silty-sandy-clay materials and clay-rich materials occupy the intermediate range. Temperature is the key factor influencing the value of modulus of elasticity of frozen soils (Fig. 8.9). The

Fe10-2, MPa

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