Contents

Editor s note page xii

Acknowledgements xiv

Notes on translations and definitions xv

Abstract xx

Preface xxi

Introduction 1

1 Geocryology as part of planetary cryology 1

2 Frozen rocks as natural-historical geological formations 9

3 History of research of the zone of permafrost and the frozen materials composing this zone 18

4 Structure, problems and scientific themes of geocryology 26

5 Methodological basis of geocryology 31

I Thermal-physical, physico-chemical and mechanical processes in freezing, frozen and thawing ground and their manifestation in the permafrost regions.

1 Thermal-physical processes in freezing and thawing ground 39

1.1 Heat transfer and temperature field in ground 39

1.2 Freezing (crystallization) of water and melting of ice in the ground 48

1.3 Sublimation and desublimation of moisture in frozen rocks 64

1.4 Freezing and thawing of ground 69

1.5 Methods for solving soil freezing (thawing) problems and approximate formulae for freezing and thawing depth calculations 83

2 Water transfer and ice formation in soils 93

2.1 Nature and mechanism of moisture migration in soils 93

2.2 Water transfer and ice formation in frozen soil 99

2.3 Water transfer and ice formation in freezing and thawing soils 111

3 Physico-chemical and mechanical processes in freezing and thawing ground 120

3.1 Chemical reactions and processes in freezing and thawing soils 120

3.2 Physico-chemical and mechanical processes in freezing and thawing soils 126

3.3 Physical-mechanical processes in frozen soils caused by changes in temperature 139

3.4 Physical and chemical processes in frozen soils caused by an external load 144

4 Structure and texture of freezing and thawing soils 157

4.1 Thermal-physical and physical-mechanical conditions of development of migrational-segregated ice interlayers 157

4.2 Basic types of cryogenic structure 163

4.3 Formation of structure in freezing and thawing soils 172

4.4 Structural associations and types of contact in frozen soils 179

5 Cryogenic geological processes and phenomena 183

5.1 Classification of processes and phenomena 183

5.2 Frost heaving of soils 186

5.3 Frost cracking (Assuring) and polygonal formations, surface and underground 192

5.4 Thermokarst 197

5.5 Slope processes and phenomena 203

5.6 Processes and effects associated with the activity of water, glaciers and other geological agents 208

II Composition, cryogenic structure and properties of frozen rocks

6 Formation of sedimentary materials in the permafrost regions (cryolithogenesis) 219

6.1 Sediment genesis in the permafrost regions 220

6.2 Transformation of loose deposits of the permafrost regions into rock 233

6.3 Formation of useful mineral deposits at different stages of cryogenesis 240

7 Composition and structure of frozen earth materials 247

7.1 Characteristics of organic, mineral and chemical composition of frozen earth materials 247

7.2 Unfrozen water and ice in ground 251

7.3 Textural characteristics of the frozen material 261

7.4 Microstructure of frozen soils 270

8 Properties of frozen soils 276

8.1 Physical properties of the frozen materials 276

8.2 Thermal-physical properties of rocks 282

8.3 Moisture exchange properties of soils 289

8.4 Mechanical properties of frozen ground 292

9 Characteristics of the basic genetic types of frozen ground 304

9.1 Features of the cryogenic types of frozen strata 304

9.2 Composition and cryogenic structure of the principal geologic-genetic types of sedimentary materials in the permafrost regions 315

9.3 Natural ice as a monomineral rock 319

III Principles of the formation and development of the frozen strata and layers of seasonal freezing and thawing

10 Thermodynamic and climatic conditions for formation of the frozen layers 331

10.1 Energy balance of the Earth 331

10.2 Thermodynamic conditions for development of seasonally and perennially frozen ground 336

10.3 Frozen ground as a result of zonation of thermal- and mass-exchange processes on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere 340

11 Seasonal freezing and thawing of ground 346

11.1 Formation of the layer of seasonal freezing and thawing of soil 346

11.2 Types of seasonal freezing and thawing of the ground 352

11.3 The influence of landscape-climatic factors on the temperature regime and depth of seasonal freezing and thawing of the ground 359

12 Development of the temperature regime and the thickness of the permafrost 373

12.1 Present-day knowledge of the development of permafrost 373

12.2 The effect of boundary conditions on the permafrost thickness and temperature regime 377

12.3 Dependence of the permafrost thickness and temperature regime on geological factors and processes 383

13 Taliks and groundwater in the permafrost zone 388

13.1 The types and formation of taliks in the permafrost zone 388

13.2 Groundwater of the permafrost regions

13.3 Interaction of groundwater with the permafrost and types of cryohydrogeological structures

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