H

The liquid phase being responsible for physico-chemical transformations of the parent rocks and sedimentary materials, the prevailing kind of phase transitions, etc. are also essential criteria for the classification of lithogenesis on planets and celestial bodies. The planets having an atmosphere are characterized by the equilibrium and quasi-equilibrium nature of the balance of the prevailing three-phase matter making a closed cycle of transitions from the liquid or solid state into the...

Info

*Cryotic bedrock and regolith **Cryotic rock *Cryotic bedrock and regolith **Cryotic rock cryogenic phenomena in addition to water, according to I.Ya. Baranov. Thus for example comparison of the spectra of the giant planets shows that the spectral lines of ammonia are gradually weakening while the lines of methane are intensifying in going from the spectrum of Jupiter to the spectrum of Neptune, resulting from the ammonia freezing out with the decrease of temperature. It is evident that glacial...

S

The reflected shortwave radiation, (Q + q)A The effective Earth surface radiation Turbulent heat exchange with the near-surface air, p Heat of moisture phase transitions, LE A. Transparency of the Atmosphere B. The angle of inclination of the surface to the line of the horizon. A. Character and height of the surface cover D. Moisture content of the soil surface layer A. Air temperature and vapour pressure. B. Colour of the surface, its roughness, character and height of cover. C. Temperature of...

Editors note

It is fitting that the holder of the only Professorial Chair of Geocryology (or permafrost studies as it used to be called), that at Moscow State University, is the compiler of a standard work on the subject. The book is the first of its type to be translated into English. Professor Eduard D. Yershov, who assumed the Chair in 1982, demonstrates the scope of Russian science and geotechnology for cold regions. The fundamental physics of frozen ground, geotechnical procedures for construction...

Sediment genesis in the permafrost regions

The formation of sedimentary material (sediment genesis) in the permafrost regions is dictated by the nature of processes occurring at the stages of weathering, transfer and accumulation of this material on catchments and in the final bodies of water of surface runoff. An essential stage is the formation of sedimentary material as a result of weathering in the general framework of the lithogenetic process. It is at this stage that sedimentary products are formed both qualitatively and...

Environment in the permafrost regions

The rational siting of industrial projects, optimal development of regional infrastructure, safe and economical construction, safeguarding the region under development from dangerous geological and geocryological processes, and environmental protection must be based first of all on knowledge of the formation and development of the geocryological environment. Clearly the programme of rational development must be drawn up in accordance with the scheme of national regional planning and design, a)...

Methodological basis of geocryology

The laws of dialectical materialism provide the starting point for the construction of scientific concepts in geocryology*. Thus it is the most general dialectical law on the evolutional character of quantitative changes *The initiation of the development of the methodological basis as far as geocryology is concerned is associated mainly with V.A. Kudryavtsev's work. and the spasmodic character of transition (at the particular stage) of quantity into quality, which has predetermined in essence...

Presentday knowledge of the development of permafrost

Knowledge of the development of permafrost has been arrived at gradually. In the 1930s M.I. Sumgin substantiated the theory of the degradation of permafrost (with warming, thawing and northward retreat). Having compared the severe climate of glacial epochs with the warmer present one, Sumgin came to the conclusion that the permafrost formed simultaneously with the ice sheets and had subsequently thawed retreating northward, i.e. it had degraded. He presented data indicating displacement of the...

A

Schematic profile along the Olyenyok-Zhigansk line (after V.S. Yakupov) l - topography 2 - lower limit of the permafrost 3 - vertical electric sounding 4 - geothermal data. Fig. 15.7. Schematic profile along the Olyenyok-Zhigansk line (after V.S. Yakupov) l - topography 2 - lower limit of the permafrost 3 - vertical electric sounding 4 - geothermal data. Ocean ice cover throughout the Pleistocene, with the increase of climatic continentality in connection with this and the sharp...

I

Transformation of macro-structure (a) and micro-structure (b) of frozen soil samples interacting with an NaCl solution over time x (according to Yu.P. Lebedenko and E.M. Chuvilin) I - soil samples prior to the experiment, z 0 II - the samples after the experiment 1 -kaolinite clay, deformed by mass exchange and ice segregation (NaCl solution 0.2N., t -1.5 C) 2 - montmorillonite clay soaking and swelling (NaCl solution 0.4N., f 1.5 C) 3 polymineral sandy-clayey silt with the formation...

References

Climate in the past and in the future Gidrometeoizdat, 1980. 2. Vtyurin, B.I. Ground ice of the USSR. Moscow Nauka, 1975. 3. Vtyurina, Ye.A. Cryogenic structure of rocks of the seasonally-thawed layer 4. Vyalov, S.S. Rheological Principles of the mechanics of frozen ground (Rus sian). Moscow Vysshaya Shkola, 1978. 5. Geocryology of the USSR (Russian) Edited by E.D. Yershov. Moscow Nedra, 6. Grechishchev, S.Ye., Chistotinov, L.V., and Shur, Yu.L. Cryogenic physical and geological...

K

Where ifr and iunf are the temperature of the frozen and unfrozen zones. This expression is termed the Stefan condition at the moving phase boundary. This expression enables us to establish the law of phase boundary propagation. Thus in the case of constant negative temperature at the surface of the originally unfrozen ground, the freezing boundary (t) propagates through the mass in accordance with the law (t) ol Jt, where a is a constant coefficient depending on the thermal-physical earth...

E

Fig. 3.14. (a) Distribution of total moisture content against depth of frozen samples, (b) density of same samples, of kaolinite ( ) and montmorillonite ( ) clays during compressional compaction by loads 0 MPa, (1), 0.25 MPa, (2), and 1.2 MPa, (3) t -1.5 C). obvious in water-saturated (G 1) frozen clayey soils where it can be 40-80 of the total (stabilized) deformation. The mechanism of unfrozen water movement in a frozen soil under compression is, apparently, mostly filtrational (under the...

Cryogenesis

As known, all mineral formations are subdivided into endogenous (magmatic and metamorphic) and exogenous (or sedimentary). Among the latter the following groups can be distinguished in accordance with conditions of formation and stages of lithogenetic process weathering, transfer, continental sediment accumulation, basin sediment accumulation and aftersedimentation transformation of deposits (10). Each of these groups can be further subdivided into classes of mineral deposits (according to the...

Place names and personal names

Geographic names are given in anglicized form where such exists and is generally recognized (e.g. St. Petersburg). Otherwise a transliterated form (e.g. River Irtysh) is given following the guidelines of the British Permanent Commission on Geographic Names. The transliterated Russian term is used for geographical features ('strait', 'bay', 'island', 'mountain range' etc.) except for 'sea' and 'lake'. The guidelines normally correspond to those advocated by the United States Board of...

Geocryology as part of planetary cryology

Geocryology is a branch of a more general science - cryology of the planets. Frozen ground as a natural-historical geological formation is not unique to and typical of the Earth only. It is widely developed on other planets of the Solar system such as Mars and Pluto as well as on the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. This becomes clear and evident if we take into account the fact that the void of the Universe with its temperature being close to absolute zero is 'a...

Cambridge University Press

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road. Port Melbourne. VIC 3207. Australia Ruiz de Alarcon 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa First published in Russian as Obshchaya Geokriologiya by Nedra, E. D. Yershov 1990 First published in English by Cambridge University Press 1998 as General Geocryology English edition Cambridge University Press 1998 This book is in copyright....

Purposes and problems

Geocryological conditions and their spatial variability are dictated by the features of the natural environment (such as geological and tectonic structure, hydrogeological and thermal-physical conditions, landscape-climatic surroundings and topography) and by the history of the development of the permafrost in the Cenozoic. Geocryological conditions in the regions of the seasonally and perennially freezing zones are studied following geocryological surveys. The development of principles and...

W

Diagrams of heat interaction between underground pipelines and soils with respect to relations between mean annual temperature tmean, minimum tmin and maximum tmax gas temperatures a - tmean > 0 C, tmin > 0 C b- tmean > 0 C tmin < 0 C c - tmean < 0 C, tmax > 0 C d-tmean < 0 C, tmax < 0 C 1 - 3 - soil (1 - perennially frozen 2 - seasonally frozen 3 - thawed) I, II - regions of permafrost and non-permafrost ground respectively.

Iv

> 0.3 Low content Massive 0-25 0.3-0.1 Medium Laminated Rare and 0.1-0.3 Ice rich > 50 Ditto Medium 0.03- Ditto Ditto Small and 0.01 fine predetermines the inevitable manifestation of thixotropic properties is a high content of silty and colloidal particles, enrichment of these with organic and organo-mineral compounds and high moisture (ice content) of mineral aggregates. The thixotropy of frozen soils on thawing promotes the washout and soaking processes. Thermal expansion contraction is...

R

For the calculation of bearing capacity of posts (a) and piles (b) for foundations in the permafrost. Stability of the foundation is calculated from bearing capacity using the following formula where N is the design load on the base is bearing capacity of the base kr is the factor of safety (used in accordance with the class of structure with respect to the Norms). The design load N on the foundation base includes the weight of the structure above the foundation with its effective...

Principles and methods of the control of cryogenic processes

When development is undertaken in the permafrost regions one is repeatedly forced to solve the problems associated with the necessity of changing the geocryological conditions in the direction favourable for the national economy. Defining the problems of the control of the cryogenic process on its own requires knowledge of the natural conditions and of the current geocryological situation which will be subject to artificial change at a later time. A combination of work carried out to control...

H 3 4j

Curve The Cenozoic Oxygen Isotope

Glaciers on mountain summits of the Parmirs, Tien Shan, Sayany, etc. G Lacierisation on Chukotka and on Arctic islands Antarctic ice sheet 14 to 7 10* yr ago changes but also the particular combinations of regional natural conditions. The main among them are regional uplift as a result of tectonic movement and the increase in solid precipitation. Given the limited precipitation during the periods of cooling, very deep ground freezing took place. In the northern half of the former USSR the...

Is

Relation of the unfrozen water film thickness h to the energy of adsorption (E) under the negative temperatures t1> t2> t 1 - with the mineral surface MS 2-4 - with the ice surface IS (2 - at h and f3, 3 - at h2 and t2, 4 - at h1 and fj ). adjacent water layers by the epitaxial mechanism. As the difference between the textural parameters of the ice and the water lattice is less than that between the textural parameters of mineral particles and water lattices, the hydrogen bond...

Underground engineering

The following kinds of work are associated with industrial mining needs 1) trench and open cast mining 2) construction of embankments, dumps, tailings dumps 3) construction clearing of ground and building sites 4) tunnelling, sinking of shafts and corridors 5) construction of underground industrial structures (coolers, gas storage, etc.) 6) construction of prospecting and production oil and gas wells. Sites for the mining industry depend mainly on the location of the mineral deposits. Therefore...

V

Dynamics of the phase boundary movement under the changing temperature conditions on the surface 1-111 - stages of the temperature change -in time (I - lowering II - stabilization III - rising) - position of the phase boundary < jfr and < junf are the intensity of the heat flux from to the surface and from the unfrozen or thawed zone to respectively. phase transitions and consequently on the temperature field. And finally, the increase of water volume in the course of freezing as...

T

Variation of the permafrost thickness depending on the mean ground temperature for many-year periods of temperature fluctuations on the surface (after V.A. Kudryavtsev) 1-3 - envelopes of the many-year temperature fluctuations at fper 0 2 and 4 C, respectively. However the mean temperature f an (for the period of fluctuation) at the permafrost surface has an effect not only on the permafrost thickness and its temperature regime but in accordance with the sign (minus or plus) and the...

Itc

Cl R-LE-p- (nAme nC + ph) (10.9) where is depth of seasonal freezing or thawing of the ground 4mean is the average amplitude of annual temperature fluctuations in layer C is volumetric heat capacity X is thermal conductivity coefficient of the soil gph is heat of phase transitions of moisture in the soil i eran is mean annual temperature of bare surface of ground ris a period equal to one year n is a coefficient approximately equal to 2 at low values of gph and Jl with greater gph and X. Since...

Oyd

Development of stresses and strains due to temperature in frozen soils, (a) Change in stress with time on reduction of t from 2CC to 15 C 1 - montmorillonite, 2 - kaolinite, 3 - sandy silty material 4 - sand. ( ) Change of temperature f, all-round stresses of distension PJ1 and linear dimension of frozen soil sample, I, against height, . 1 - unallowable temperature deformations of soil, 2 - actual deformations, l0 l3- boundaries of soil sample A-D -conventionally identified layers). A...

Temperature

Temperature changes in soils cause fairly large volumetric deformations (contraction or expansion) and 'all-round' stresses (extension or compression) for example, as the temperature falls, the energy of the crystalline lattice grows owing to the lower intensity of thermal movement of its atoms and molecules and to corresponding reductions of the size of the lattice, which is manifested in a certain reduction of the coefficients of linear, a, or of volumetric, av, thermal expansion (Fig. 3.7a)....

Acknowledgements

The editor and publishers are indebted to those who have assisted in various ways in preparing the English version. Isabella M.T. Warren, Russian Bibliographer, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, has been a constant source of help in refining the translation. The following gave expert advice in interpreting the finer points of particular technical terms in the original Russian Evgenny Chuvilin, Evgenny Aksenov and Olga Toutoubalina, Moscow State University and Vlad Roujansky, EBA...

Rt

Thus the migration of bound water in dispersed soils can be viewed as the difference of translatory H20 molecule jumps in forward and backward directions. The rate of translatory molecule jumps, according to equation (2.5), goes up with a rise in the temperature and a drop in the energy of bonding of water molecules to the mineral surface of particles or to the diffuse layer ions, i.e. with the increased film water mobility. Thus, with other conditions being equal, bound water will migrate from...

Planet

Archaean Expasion

The evolution of the Earth extends over almost 5 billion years. Its history ean be divided into three significant stages which are basically responsible for the present state of the lithosphere. These are the initial or Archaean (2 x 109 years), Proterozoic (on the order of 2 x 109 years) and Phanerozoic (0.6 x 109 years) stages of the development of the geosphere and lithogenesis. During the Archaean stage of the Earth's development the vulcanogenic type of lithogenesis, characterized by...

F

Section of the cryogenic weathering crust (according to Sh.Sh. Gasanov) 1 - bedrock 2 - fractures resulting from stress release 3 - fine-grained material with montmorillonite-hydromica clay minerals 4 - debris of little altered bedrock 5 - vein ice in the bedrock fractures grading towards the top into ice-cement 6 - structure-forming segregation ice 7 - golets ice or structure-forming ice-cement. these rates vary within a wide range. Thus, for example, according to data provided by...

Distribution of main types of seasonal ground thawing and freezing

The main distribution pattern of different types of seasonal ground thawing and freezing on the territory of the former USSR is shown on the general map-diagram (Fig. 15.8) on which we can follow in succession the zonal-regional changes depending on the stability of process (on tmean) and on the climatic type at the surface (on A0). Within every type there exists (almost without exception) areas with azonal conditions of freezing and thawing, typical of more northern or more southern regions...

1

Cryogenic structure formed in the shear zone in kaolinite clay sample (initially of massive cryogenic structure). Fig. 2.9. Cryogenic structure formed in the shear zone in kaolinite clay sample (initially of massive cryogenic structure). where oa dx is the stress gradient. Moisture transfer and ice formation in frozen soils affected by a shear stress gradient depend on soil composition. The thickness of the zone of ice formation and desiccation diminishes in transition from clays to...

Formation of the layer of seasonal freezing and thawing of soil

Kudryavtsev, seasonal thawing is thawing from the top, of frozen ground having a mean annual temperature below 0 C. The layer of seasonal thawing is always underlain by permafrost and its thickness is determined by heat cycles in the layer that extend to positive temperatures of the ground. Seasonal freezing is the process of freezing from the top of unfrozen ground having a mean annual temperature above 0 C. The layer of seasonal freezing is underlain by unfrozen ground and...

Fro t ayx

< , * , , > boundary conditions This statement holds good for the process of soil freezing as well as thawing while the direction of the process (freezing or thawing) is determined in the course of the problem solution. In this mathematical formulation of the problem the boundary conditions are of type I, taken as the upper (z 0) and lower (z ) boundaries, i.e. the change of temperature with time at these boundaries is given. Other types of specification of boundary conditions are also...

M

Where C is the soil volumetric thermal capacity T is a period, equal to 1 year for the seasonal processes of freezing (thawing) is the unknown freezing (thawing) depth r ean is the mean annual ground temperature at the depth A0 is the amplitude of the temperature sine-wave fluctuation at the ground surface. The above expressions hold good for determining the depths of seasonal freezing as well as of seasonal thawing of ground in the case when the thermal-physical characteristics of soils in the...

Reasons for the development and evolution of the permafrost in the Earths history

The origin, development and disappearance of the glacial covers at different stages of the Earth's development depend on the heat exchange level at its surface. Continuity of the development of the geological and geographical environment in the course of the development of the planet causes corresponding changes in the development of the heat exchange between the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. When the heat exchange leads to negative temperatures on the Earth's surface,...

Frozen Thermal Conductivity Of Gneiss

Taken into account that the thermal conductivity of water, ice and air is linearly dependent on temperature. Thus, with a temperature drop of 1K the coefficients X of water and air diminish by 2 x 103 and 9 x 105', respectively, while that of ice increases by 5 x 10-3Wm 1K 1. Heat capacity values of rocks and minerals are rather steady and comparatively well studied experimentally. Specific heat capacities of soil components (mineral skeleton, ice, water-gas and peat) vary within a narrow range...

The methods and carryingout of geocryological surveys

Carrying out geocryological surveys at any scale includes three stages preliminary, field and office work. The preliminary stage begins with the drawing up of the work program, laying out the main problems of the survey to be conducted. For its realization field observations and published materials such as topographic maps, aerial photographs at large and small scale (black and white, colour and spectral range) and satellite photographs (when the small-scale survey is conducted), geological and...

Engineeringgeological survey in the permafrost regions

Engineering-geological and geocryological investigations carried out to help in the design of various structures are termed engineering-geological surveys. The first practical work in the world on the problem of geocryological investigations for construction purposes was that by V.N. Yanovskiy, Methods of investigation of permafrost for engineering construction purposes, published in the 1950s in which experience in the development of the European North and Siberia in the 1930s and 1940s was...

Thermalphysical processes in freezing and thawing ground

1.1 Heat transfer and temperature field in ground The temperature regime of the upper part of the lithosphere is a result of thermal interaction with the environment (atmosphere, space, etc.) and with the underlying strata. The amount of heat arriving at the Earth from the atmosphere (mainly from the Sun) is approximately three orders of magnitude larger than that arriving from the interior. The process of heat transfer in ground proceeds generally through radiation, convection and conduction....

Regime and depth of seasonal freezing and thawing of the ground

Boulon Griffe Appareil Pression

The classification of the types of seasonal freezing and thawing elaborated by Kudryavtsev takes account of the influence of the main geological-geographical factors, both individual and in their combination, on the processes of freezing and thawing as well as on the thickness of the seasonally frozen and seasonally thawed layers. One should bear in mind the mutual relationships of all elements of the environment. Thus, for example, variation of thickness or changes of species of vegetation...

Perennially frozen ground

As noted above, the particular value of surface temperature is formed in the process of interrelated and mutually conditioned variation of the individual components of the radiation-thermal balance in the 'ground-atmosphere' system. There are several methods of determining the functional relationship between the temperature regime of the Earth's surface and certain components of the radiation-thermal balance. One of them is associated, for example, with determination of the difference of mean...

CWUBt 23Wcom Wunt Wnat

Where Wnat is natural humidity of the ground at the moment of the beginning of freezing or thawing WUBf is the amount of unfrozen water and Wcom is total moisture capacity. Each type of seasonal freezing and thawing distinguished in Kudryavtsev's classification has the name that reflects its main classification features, for example arctic, sharply-continental, sandy, deep stable, continental, clayey-silt, fine etc. The number of different combinations of the main parameters can be large....

Extensive areas within the permafrost zone

Engineering work can cause disturbance of the geological-geographical environment over large areas and regions and even on the Earth as a whole. The formulation and control of many problems of geocryologi-cal investigations associated with regional environmental disturbance is very topical in the context of harmonious exploitation and problems of environmental management in recent years. The effect on the geocryological environment of such projects as creation of water reservoirs in rivers in...

Unfrozen water and ice in ground

The phase composition of moisture, i.e. the content of vapour, unfrozen water and ice in the frozen ground, predetermines its specific physical and mechanical properties and the pattern of occurrence of cryogenic-geological processes. The liquid phase of water in the frozen sediments can be in different energetic and structural states ranging from the state of free water to the substantially modified structure in the immediate vicinity of the surface of mineral particles. A triangle is formed...

Transformation of loose deposits of the permafrost regions into rock

Transformation of the basin and continental sediments into rock is considered to be the most specific stage of lithogenesis in the permafrost regions. Sedimentary formations are subject to single or multiple freezing-thawing and adapt to the changing thermodynamic and physico-chemical conditions of the environment (as they progress deeper). As a result of tectonic movements and denudation processes these formations may approach the Earth's surface many times (and even be found within the...

Frequently misinterpreted words

Readers acquainted with the Russian language may be interested in the following words which often cause confusion in translations. A direct transliteration or a literal translation gives an incorrect or, at least, misleading meaning. Some erroneous translations have recurred in so many publications as to have gained a certain currency. As a consequence they have often caused difficulties for the proper understanding and assessment of the Russian literature of geocryology. The correct...

Preface

Geocryology (the study of frozen soils) is a natural and historical science and a branch of geology, concerned with the laws of the formation and the evolution in time and space of frozen ground, its composition, cryogenic structure and properties, and with cryogeological processes and phenomena. The frozen ground may be hundreds of meters thick (up to 1500 m) in the region comprising the freezing zone of the lithosphere characterized by freezing temperatures (to 15 C) and inclusions of ice or...

Features of the cryogenic types of frozen strata

Currently the strata of perennially frozen materials are subdivided into two basic types with respect to conditions of their freezing, namely, epicryogenic and syncryogenic. Under certain conditions (locally) a third type can be distinguished - diacryogenic perennially frozen materials. In the majority of cases the frozen strata represent different combinations of these types and are then called polycryogenic (polygenetic) types. Epicryogenic frozen strata are formed by freezing (usually from...

Types of agrobiological development in the permafrost regions

Geocryological research in the course of development of agriculture is becoming more and more important. It is associated not only with the permafrost regions but also with those with deep seasonal freezing the non-fertile zone of European Russia, Western Siberia, the Chitinskaya Oblast' the BAM zone, etc. For the present the problem of using only small areas for agriculture is considered here. One of the reasons for poor harvests as well as for their unreliability lies in inadequate warming of...

And other geological agents

Of paramount importance in geological activity, is the role of flowing water, glaciers and other agents of the environment. Among these, the processes brought about by the action of intermittent and permanent watercourses prevail, along with those resulting from sheet wash by rainfall and meltwater, leading to conveyance of enormous quantities of sedimentary material. Naturally, the impact of the flow of water is not merely the transport of material. Creeks and rivers contribute greatly to...

Ground

The freezing (thawing) of soils is accompanied by complicated physico-chemical processes, the nature and intensity of which are essentially different depending on whether migration of water occurs in the material or Physico-chemical and mechanical processes in freezing soils When ground freezes without water migration, then the free or semibound water in the pores increases its volume by about 9 as it turns into ice. If the pores are filled with water at G 1, then the freezing ground expands...

Water transfer and ice formation in soils

2.1 Nature and mechanism of moisture migration in soils Water migration in unsaturated soils is due to a complex mass transfer mechanism and a variety of water exchange driving forces. For geocryological problems the most interesting is the migration of bound and capillary water and vapour. Seepage (movement of free or gravitational water) in fine-grained materials is of minor significance and will not be discussed further. Water migration and vapour transfer in soils are related to the...

C

Fig. 3.11. (a) Rheological curve of fine-grained soil and (b - c) diagrams of deformation of bodies (b) elastic (Hooke's law), (c) elastoplastic (d) non-linear-elastic, (e) viscous (Newton's law), ( ) viscoplastic (Bingham's law), (g) non-linear viscous). Fig. 3.11. (a) Rheological curve of fine-grained soil and (b - c) diagrams of deformation of bodies (b) elastic (Hooke's law), (c) elastoplastic (d) non-linear-elastic, (e) viscous (Newton's law), ( ) viscoplastic (Bingham's law), (g)...

Thermokarst

When ice-rich frozen soils thaw, and the ground ice melts and drains, surface subsidence is observed. The process of thermal subsidence is widely developed in the permafrost regions. It occurs both on seasonal and perennial Fig. 5.7. Pseudomorphs along ice veins in the Ob river downstream a - structure of enclosure of subaqueous type in the Kazantsev deposits (photo V.V. Baulin and L.M. Shmelev) b - structure of infilling in the Sartan deposits (photo L.M. Shmelev). Fig. 5.7. Pseudomorphs along...

Mechanical properties of frozen ground

Mechanical (deformation and strength) properties of frozen soils are usually expressed by quantitative coefficients that determine a functional relationship between the value and type of mechanical action and response of the material. Deformation characteristics of frozen soils comprise moduli of total and elastic deformation, Poisson's ratio, indices of rheologic curves of flow and curves of creep, coefficients of viscosity and compressibility strength characteristics are short-term and...

The types and formation of taliks in the permafrost zone

Even in the most severe climatic conditions the spatial distribution of permafrost is not universally continuous. Within the permafrost zone the frozen ground can be absent within many sections of river valleys and watersheds, on south-facing slopes, under lakes, at sites of concentrated discharge of groundwater or of its recharge by seepage, volcanic craters, calderas, under some of the present glaciers and above the interior-Earth thermal anomalies associated with oxidation reactions, etc....

Characteristics of organic mineral and chemical composition of frozen earth materials

The organic-mineral and chemical composition of frozen materials and their granulometry have not been well studied to the present time. Much attention was earlier given to the study of ice (as a mineral and a rock) as a component of big accumulations and deposits. However, seasonal and perennial freeze-thaw bring about not only transformations of ice, but also changes in mineral, chemical and organic composition of the mineral matrix. Chemical processes that occur in the regions of development...

Dependence of the permafrost thickness and temperature regime on geological factors and processes

The effect of geological factors and processes on the permafrost thickness and temperature regime is essentially corrected by a heat balance of the upper layers of the lithosphere. This correction can take place as a result of the anisotropy of heat transfer conditions in rock which is dependent on the specific features of their composition, properties and structure, as well as on the redistribution of heat fluxes because of the occurrence of additional heat sources such as active zones of...

History of research of the zone of permafrost and the frozen materials composing this zone

We can recognize several stages in the history of research into seasonally and perennially frozen ground. The first stage (from the sixteenth century to the first half of eighteenth century) is that of the first information concerning discoveries of the permafrost and the first attempts to explain the reasons for its existence. There is no doubt, though, that natives of the northern regions and Siberia always knew of its existence. The first data on permafrost (which was termed the 'Russian...

Development of migrationalsegregated ice interlayers

The particular features of thermal-physical, physical-mechanical and physico-chemical processes in freezing ground create conditions for the formation of migrational-segregated ice layers with various orientation, frequency and thickness in other words, they cause the appearance and development of cryogenic structures. These processes in freezing ground essentially transform the structure, density and strength of soils. For example, as a result of dehydration of the unfrozen part of the ground...

Normative documents for engineering design and construction in the permafrost regions

Engineering geological surveys, design work and construction are carried out in conformity with documented norms. In accordance with the System of Norms for Construction adopted by the USSR State Construction Committee in 1983, they are subdivided into Ail-Union, department and republic normative documents. The Ail-Union normative documents are obligatory for all enterprises, organizations and amalgamations subordinate to the Ail-Union, departmental and republic bodies, carrying out work in a...

Classification of processes and phenomena

Exogenous geological processes and phenomena in the permafrost regions are often referred to as cryogenic (frozen ground) geological processes and phenomena. They are due to the development of the thermal-physical, physico-chemical and mechanical processes that occur in freezing, frozen and thawing soils, which were considered in the previous chapters. The specific features of exogenous geological processes in the permafrost zone are determined by the cyclic recurrence of freezing and thawing,...

Late Cenozoic

The evolution of natural conditions in the Late Cenozoic caused by global cooling of the Earth's climate led to the formation of the permafrost in the north, north-east and within high-elevation mountain systems on the south of the former USSR which continues to the present day. The history of the cryogenic development of the north-eastern part of Eurasia in the Late Cenozoic recorded in stratigraphy has not been studied uniformly and adequately as a whole. The initial period of the study of...

Interaction of groundwater with the permafrost and types of cryohydrogeological structures

Permafrost affects the groundwater condition through the mechanism of mutual interaction. The water loses energy to the frozen rock, tending to thaw it, while the frozen rock, on the contrary, tends to freeze the water by taking its heat energy. The permafrost zone currently existing is derived from this complex process proceeding in various directions. Partial or full freezing of water-bearing horizons, complexes, and zones of jointing has occurred as a result of such interaction. They have...

Frozen rocks as naturalhistorical geological formations

A few periods of active formation and existence of frozen ground alternating with periods of its disappearance or sharp decrease in extent can be discerned in the history of this planet's development. The distribution of frozen ground over the Globe in ancient epochs is associated with regions where ancient continental glaciations occurred and their moraine deposits are found. Therefore during the first half of the Earth's geological history (2.5 billion years ago) permafrost is unlikely to...

Physical properties of the frozen materials

Moisture content, ice content, density and porosity are the main physical indices that characterize the engineering-geological aspects of frozen and thawed soils. Moisture content of frozen soil is the water content, based on drying at a temperature of 100-105 C to obtain the constant mass of solid material. There are different indices - total moisture content, integral (natural) moisture content and volumetric moisture content. Total moisture content Wtot of the frozen soil is the ratio of...

Geologicgenetic types of sedimentary materials in the permafrost regions

Owing to the specific conditions and factors of lithogenetic processes in the permafrost regions there are a number of distinctive features in the composition, structure and properties of the frozen soils with development of essentially new genetic types of sedimentary formations, found only in the areas of permafrost development. A number of terms appeared in the literature, on the one hand specifying the genesis of sedimentary formations in the permafrost regions, such as 'cryogenic eluvium',...

Development

Kudryavtsev (18) geocryological forecast refers to the scientific prediction of changes of geocryological conditions which will occur in the future, either in the context of natural circumstances or in the course of economic development. In line with this definition two types of forecast, the evolutional (often designated natural-historical) and the technological are distinguished. The first includes forecasting the changes in permafrost characteristics and of the processes...

Regionalization in geocryological mapping

Mold Loft Drawings

Geocryological maps are compiled to study geocryological conditions in two cases at the stage of completion of a geocryological survey at any scale, and when summarizing the geocryological and other materials at the general scales (without conducting the geocryological surveys). The procedure of compilation of geocryological maps at surveying scales is based on the integrated study of two groups of cryoforming factors and conditions 1) zonal landscape-climatic and 2) regional...

Distribution of permafrost and spatial variations of its mean annual temperature

The great extent of the territories of the former USSR from west to east and from north to south, the complexity of orographic, geological, tectonic and hydrogeological structures, of landscape and of climate, together with the changes in the late Cenozoic, are responsible for the variety of geocryological conditions in their different parts. The zonal distribution of permafrost in the territory of the former USSR is associated with two main circumstances 1) the history of the cryogenic...

Moisture exchange properties of soils

Hydromica Clay

Analysis of the state of moisture in the soil and its capacity to move is the first priority in the assessment of mass-exchange characteristics of hydraulic conductivity, mass capacity, coefficient of diffusion and moisture potential. It was shown by experiment that with higher moisture content the values of ground water potential and differential water capacity increased. Low absolute values of the chemical potential of the moisture of high moisture content materials indicate small amounts of...

External load

In frozen soils under the effect of external loads, mechanical stresses developed by means of interrelated and successive processes are elastic deformations (conventional-momentary and elastic aftereffect), plastic deformation (attenuating creep, viscous flow, unattenuating creep or progressive flow) and destruction (brittle, when the body loses its continuity, or plastic with loss of soil stability). In these processes the frozen soils show rheological properties, caused by their...

Microstructure of frozen soils

Soil Aggregate Microstructure

The microstructure of frozen soils implies the totality of microstructural and microtextural features inherited from the unfrozen materials as well as those acquired during freezing and in the frozen state. The concept of microstructure includes the size, shape, pattern of surface and the quantitative proportions of elements that compose the frozen soil and the nature of their relationships. Microstructure is defined as the totality of attributes that characterize the relative arrangement and...

The economic development of the permafrost regions

The intense pace of economic development of the territories within the permafrost region continues to increase steadily. Under the effect of different types of development all or some of the components of the natural environment, including the geocryological conditions, can change, resulting in transformations of the natural complex as a whole. 'The geological environment' is defined as an essential constituent of the natural environment. We address it in several aspects as far as various types...

Ljii I I Ii I I Ii

Guiyang Map Geology

Tentative character of the change in the maximum thickness of (1) syncryogenic and (2) epicryogenic sedimentary layers in the development of the Earth's lithogenesis. adjacent territories (on account of cold and dry glacier winds). Thus, large ice covers have as a rule rather wide adjacent periglacial zones within which the low temperature permafrost exists. At the same time the permafrost can be lacking under ice covers of great thickness because of the pressure of the ice mass or...

Frost heaving of soils

Frost Heave Rocks Farm Images

Frost heaving of soils arises due to the increase in volume of freezing moisture and the accumulation of ice (owing to water migration) at freezing. This process is widely developed both in the permafrost regions and in the regions of deep seasonal freezing of ground. The largest deformations due to heaving are observed in the freezing of an open system of highly permeable, usually sand-silty soils and saturated silty-sandy-clays at low rates of freezing and in the proximity of ground water...

Types of seasonal freezing and thawing of the ground

As early as the first years of the 1950s, V.A. Kudryavtsev pointed out that the processes of freezing and thawing are, on one hand, thermal-physical resulting from thermal interaction of the atmosphere and surrounding space with the lithosphere, and on the other geological-geographical, since the thermal processes take place in the particular geological medium and a complicated geographical setting. It was convincingly proved that determination of the features of seasonal freezing and thawing...

Textural characteristics of the frozen material

Cryogenic texture of the frozen material is assumed to be that of the ice framework, consisting of inclusions, intercalations differing in shape and size, orientation and spatial arrangement, by which the structure of the Fig. 7.9. Curves of differential distribution of void volumes by radius (a) and dependence of unfrozen water content on temperature in siliceous (& ), sandy (c) and clay-rich (d) soils and rocks 1 - diatomitic clay 2 - diatomite 3 - tripoli 4 - opoka 5 - silica gel 6-8 -...

Slope processes and phenomena

Slope processes and phenomena are caused by the action of gravity forces and lead to a variety of deformations - collapse, talus, landsliding, solifluction, stone streams, rapid flows and the like. The most distinct manifestation of gravitational forces occurs on steep slopes, with failure and displacement of rock waste and stone blocks resulting from the weathering processes. The rate of material displacement can vary, being high on certain sites. The history of the sedimentary material within...

Structure problems and scientific themes of geocryology

At the present time further accelerated development and differentiation of permafrost science is taking place. A number of scientific directions in geocryology have pretensions to being independent scientific disciplines (cryolithology, engineering geocryology, etc.). However, as is obvious from the foregoing, geocryology has to investigate practically all the aspects of formation and development of the ground in the qualitatively new (frozen) state. Therefore it is natural that the structure...

Formation of sedimentary materials in the permafrost regions cryolithogenesis

The most general and fundamental geological principles of the formation of sedimentary deposits in the permafrost regions are associated with the questions of grain-size distribution and chemical-mineral composition, structural-textural features and composition of the frozen sediments, the nature of which is elucidated in the course of study of chemical, physical-chemical and physico-mechanical processes that occur in the sediments of the permafrost regions in their stage-by-stage...

Formation of structure in freezing and thawing soils

Cryogenics Microstructure

The wide spectrum of physico-chemical and physical-mechanical processes which accompany freezing and thawing of soils causes considerable structural transformations of their organic-mineral skeleton manifested by change in the size, shape, relations and orientation of structural elements (primary particles, mineral and organic-mineral aggregates). The size of structural elements can increase or decrease during freezing. The decrease is a result of dispersion effects and the increase is caused...

Basic types of cryogenic structures

To explain reliably the particular features of generation and growth of different types of superimposed and inherited cryogenic structures (Table 4.1) we should know the mechanism and pattern of formation of the vertical and horizontal ice layers in soil during freezing (thawing). Superimposed cryogenic structures normally appear in soils which are relatively homogeneous (prior to freezing), as a result of the freezing process and not as a result of the primary (initial) structure of the...

Groundwater of the permafrost regions

In response to repeated changes in the climatic conditions through the Pleistocene and Holocene, which included glaciations and general cooling, fundamental cryogenic transformations occurred within the upper part of the lithosphere. They extended over vast portions (as far as area and depth are concerned) of the Earth's crust, creating quite a specific hydro-geological situation. Groundwater survived only in taliks of various types, below the permafrost base, within the zones of supra- and...

Structure of the permafrost and spatial variability of its thickness

The permafrost is defined as the part of the Earth's crust in which the earth materials have negative temperature, regardless of the presence or phase composition of water in it. The structure of the permafrost, its thickness and distribution reflect the combined result of the whole history of its formation and the dynamics of perennial ground freezing from the end of the Neogene up to the present time. The permafrost thickness within the territory of the former USSR varies greatly, from the...

Notes on translations and definitions

In transliterations, the system used by the Scott Polar Research Institute's bibliographic services has been followed. The following dictionaries, glossaries and similar items have been used Challinor's Dictionary of Geology, 6th edn (Ed. Wyatt). 1986. University of Wales Press, Cardiff. 374 pp. Slovar' Sokrashcheniy Russkogo Yazyka, 1977 Dictionary of Abbreviations of the Russian Language . Elsevier's Dictionary of Earth Sciences Russian-English (compilers K.P. Bhatnagar amd S.K. Battacharya)...

Methods of amelioration of frozen ground for foundations

By amelioration (improvement) is meant a purposeful change of mean annual temperature, structure and properties of frozen, freezing and thawing ground and of the thermal-moisture regime in the direction required for solving the particular practical problems. Thermal, water-thermal, mechanical, physical-chemical and chemical amelioration is used. Thermal amelioration consists of the artificial lowering or raising of ground temperature using various heat sources. Heat transfer is performed in...

Principles of construction on permafrost bases and foundations

Frozen Footings

For construction outside the permafrost regions it is usually believed that all the load from a structure is transmitted through the base of the foundation to bearing ground while ground in contact with the sides of a foundation only occasionally carries a vertical load (as with piles and deep foundations). The interaction between foundations and ground is assessed differently in the regions of deep seasonal freezing and of permafrost. The load is transmitted to ground here through all the...

Natural ice as a monomineral rock

All kinds of natural ice that form independent bodies and accumulations can be regarded as a monomineral rock. They develop under condi tions of negative temperature of land and sea surface, atmosphere and lithosphere. Distribution of ice on the Earth's surface and in the crust is extremely nonuniform. Major masses of ice are concentrated on the land surface, mainly as glaciers and ice sheets. With an areal extent of only 3.1 (in relation to the Earth's surface) they constitute over 97 of all...

Frost cracking Assuring and polygonal formations surface and underground

Ground Cracking Under Dry Conditions

Frost cracking represents the process of temperature strain of frozen rocks in the variable temperature gradient fields. The volumetric tensions arising due to changes in temperature of ground within the annual range of temperature variations can lead to frost cracking of soil masses. Cracking takes place on the surface and penetrates the ground forming polygons in plan (Fig. 5.4). Multiple repetition of the frost cracking process gives rise to cryogenic formations and specific features of the...

Water transfer and ice formation in freezing and thawing soils

Unfrozen Water Fraction

There are basically two different ways that soils freeze with and without water migration. Soil freezing without water migration occurs either in the case of soils of low moisture content or a sufficiently rapid advance of the freezing boundary. For example, when a soil sample is frozen through quickly at temperatures of 60 C, 70 C, water freezes in situ, since the temperature field is by a factor of 10 more active than the moisture content field. Usually freezing in nature proceeds slowly...

Chemical reactions and processes in freezing and thawing soils

Essentially the same chemical reactions take place in soils during freezing and thawing and in the frozen state as in unfrozen materials. These reactions are solution, hydration, substitution, oxidation-reduction, ion exchange etc., but in the cold regions they have a number of specific features. For example, solution is less intense because under lower temperatures some salts dissolve at a much slower rate. Apparently, because of low temperatures the permafrost regions contain considerable...