Convection in the Western Labrador

Although the occurrence of deep convection in the ocean is fairly easy to discern after the fact, it is a difficult process to observe in real time. This is partly because of the harsh wintertime conditions surrounding this phenomenon (high winds, cold temperatures, rough sea state, and often times ice), and also due to the fact that the lateral scales of the convective plumes are very small (Marshall and Schott 1999). It was not until March 1976 that deep convection was directly observed in...

Water Masses and Circulation Pathways

By 1990 the basic elements of the subpolar circulation and the identities of the main water masses were established. First, consider the near-surface ocean, nominally the upper 1,000 m. At these depths, relatively warm (roughly, 8-15 C), saline (35-36 psu) thermocline waters enter the Newfoundland and then the West European Basins in the North Atlantic Current (NAC). On the southern (warmer, T > 10 C) side of the NAC some fluid separates to circulate south and leave the Water), or another...