Bacteroidales

The surface of many of the larger gut flagellates is densely covered with morphologically similar rod-shaped bacteria (Bloodgood and Fitzharris 1976; Tamm 1982; Dolan and Margulis 1997; Stingl et al. 2004; Fig. 1). The epibi-onts of a Staurojoenina sp. from Neotermes cubanus were recently identified as members of a new, termite-associated lineage of Bacteroidales (Stingl et al. 2004) and have been assigned to the candidate taxon 'Vestibaculum illiga-tum' (Fig. 5), and also the epibionts of Barbulanympha and Caduceia seem to be members of the Bacteroidales (see Stingl et al. 2004).

Also the rod-shaped epibionts of Mixotricha paradoxa (Wenzel et al. 2003; see also Chapter by H. König, L. Li, M. Wenzel, and J. Fröhlich) fall into this cluster, and it is likely that the other clones in the cluster recovered from other termites (Ohkuma et al. 2002; Hongoh et al. 2003; Yang et al. 2005) represent

Fig. 5. Phylogenetic relationships between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 'Candida-tus Vestibaculum illigatum' colonizing Staurojoenina flagellates in Neotermes cubanus and the rod-shaped epibiont of Mixotricha paradoxa in Mastotermes darwiniensis to clones obtained from various other termites and the most-closely related isolates bacteria among the Bacteroidales. (Figure from Stingl et al. 2004)

Fig. 5. Phylogenetic relationships between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 'Candida-tus Vestibaculum illigatum' colonizing Staurojoenina flagellates in Neotermes cubanus and the rod-shaped epibiont of Mixotricha paradoxa in Mastotermes darwiniensis to clones obtained from various other termites and the most-closely related isolates bacteria among the Bacteroidales. (Figure from Stingl et al. 2004)

symbionts of gut flagellates. The rod-shaped epibionts of Caduceia versatilis (d'Ambrosio et al. 1999), whose attachment structures differ considerably from that of the other rod-shaped epibionts of devescovinid flagellates (Tamm 1980), are involved in an unusual motility symbiosis (Tamm 1982).

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