A failure of past restoration efforts can be traced back to having started with unrealistic goals or alternatively with very narrow goals that fail to take into account local and surrounding socioeconomic realities. For this reason it is important to set goals that are at once realistic but also consider the many dif-
128 Mansourian, 2004.
ferent outputs required from most landscapes. In a landscape context, restoration goals for conservation organisations will often be closely linked to other activities relating to protected areas and sustainable forest management. Thus, restoration may seek to complement a protected area or relieve pressure on it. Equally, restoration can happen within and around the estate of a managed forest. Forest restoration goals within a landscape generally have to address both social and ecological needs; they may, for instance, relate to restoration of species' habitat in one location but also to the establishment of fuelwood plantations elsewhere. In all cases, the key will be to attempt to balance those goals to provide optimal benefits (also see "Goals and Targets of Forest Landscape Restoration," "Negotiations and Conflict Management," and "Addressing Trade-Offs in Forest Landscape Restoration").
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