Outline of Tools

Stakeholders may decide that a certain landscape configuration and condition is ideal for their objectives. But usually different stakeholders have different ideals. To fine-tune a landscape vision, some specific approaches can be used depending on the restoration goal:

Biodiversity: Modelling tools developed by the United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) are useful.135 Some assumptions about corridors and connectivity have to be treated with caution.136 One should not always assume that protected areas should be as big as possible. There are often significant opportunity costs that protected areas create for local people. Protected areas should be of an optimal size, not necessarily as big as possible.136 The importance of seral stages in vegetation development is often underestimated. Many wildlife species require early successional vegetation for their survival. Poverty mapping and assessment: The World Agroforestry Centre has a lot to offer on this topic (see "Agroforestry as a Tool for Forest Landscape Restoration"). Land care: The Landcare programme in Australia and now expanding elsewhere is an interesting model for participatory multi-stakeholder restoration programmes. Water: Lots of common assumptions about the value of land cover for water quality and quantity are not borne out by empirical evidence. Forest cover may consume more water than it conserves; it all depends on the type of trees, the frequency and intensity of rainfall, and the nature of the underlying substrate. Expert advice should be sought on the hydrological implications of restoration pro-

grammes (also see "Restoring Water Quality and Quantity"). Amenity: The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States have restoration programmes with a heavy emphasis on amenity. This is the realm of landscape architecture.138 Avalanche control: This is an important issue in temperate and boreal countries and there is an abundant literature. Timber: Timber is the real objective of much so-called restoration. Caution is needed because narrow timber production objectives are rarely consistent with the broader objectives of local people and the environment. Tree crops: Tree crops include oil palm, coffee, cacao, rubber etc. More can be found on this topic in the chapter on agroforestry, cited above, but also in publications on extractive reserves and jungle rubber.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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