In Dana Nature Reserve in central Jordan, agreements between local Bedouin and park authorities have halved the number of goats grazing within the reserve to 9000, leading to large-scale forest regeneration in what had previously been almost a desert landscape. Here the efforts at restoration were more in negotiating agreements than in management interventions and have been accompanied by efforts to provide alternative livelihoods for local people through ecotourism, agriculture, and selling herbs (information from discussion with park guards, September 2000).
2.2. Finland: Active Restoration Is Used to Accelerate the Achievement of a Natural State in Areas Previously Utilised Commercially
2.5. U.S.: Restoration of Wilderness Values Requires Particular Management Steps
In this example in Finland, the longer term aim is the creation of ecologically coherent, self-sustaining areas of woodland where natural dynamics are the driving forces behind change. Such interventions are used particularly in protected areas in the south, where long-term management has altered forest composition and structure. The main measures used are helping deciduous saplings to establish by making small clearings, deliberate creation of deadwood by damaging trees to hasten the restoration of natural decay patterns, and use of artificial forest fires.263
In the Guanacaste National Park in Costa Rica, severe forest loss necessitated artificial reforestation, including the use of Gmelina plantations to provide a nurse crop for natural forest regeneration.264
In Fontainebleau Forest strict reserve, near Paris, native woodland has been left to regain natural structure and functioning, but the area has been invaded by Japanese knotweed (Fal-lopia japonica) where tree fall creates gaps in the canopy. There is a debate about whether nonintervention can work in situations where the natural ecology has already been radically altered.265
263 Metsahallitus Forest and Park Service, 2000.
264 Janzen, 2000.
265 Dudley, 1996.
Many officially designated wilderness areas have been settled in the past and are now being managed to restore values of naturalness and wilderness. For example, the Coronado National Forest in Arizona contains many wilderness areas that have previously been subject to gold mining, settlement, logging, and ranching. All logging has now been banned from these areas, and relics of human activity are left to decay over time. Current visitation is managed, with, for instance, camping permitted in only a few designated areas. These management actions reflect a desire to increase wilderness values in what is already a fairly natural forest from the perspective of biodiversity, although gold mining would still be legal in the area (information collected on site visit).
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