For forest landscape restoration, only native species should be used in plantations, except if, as in some of the cases mentioned earlier, there are good specific arguments for the use of exotics. Therefore, increased knowledge of characteristics and silviculture of native tree species is needed to assist in this objective. In particular, more information is needed on the performance of indigenous species in plantation conditions. In addition, silvicultural guidelines for plantations with indigenous species are needed to increase their adoption by local farmers. Market values are also an important factor influencing the adoption of native species by local farmers. A key question in species' choices with the dual purpose of restoration and production is how to balance economic objectives with biodiversity ones. Finally, there are some trade-off issues: Is it best to have smaller areas of exotic plantations or larger areas of native plantations? Again a balance between the two objectives— restoration and production—should give insights into the answer.
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