A number of techniques have been proposed in active restoration programmes in those parts of the world where shortage of water availability
437 Running, 2003.
is a major limiting factor for seedling establishment of native shrubs and trees. These techniques include artificial shading, irrigation in the dry season, elimination of herb competition, use of gels that absorb and very slowly release water, ground preparation to increase infiltration, and microtopography modification to canalise run-off toward the reforested plots. When nutrients are limiting, manure and compost from agricultural, industrial, or sewage plants' residues have been utilised. Another technique that has successfully been used is planting the seedling below the canopy of naturally established nurse shrubs, which provide an ameliorated microenvironment for the introduced seedlings. Many of these techniques are discussed in more detail in other chapters of this book. It should be noted that the choice of technique will need to be determined by the climatic, biophysical, and socioeconomic conditions.
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