General Guidelines on Plantations

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Jakarta, Indonesia. www.cifor.cgiar.org . Contains information on controversial issues regarding plantations such as social relevance, economic aspects, environmental effects. Evans J. 1992. Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. One of the most complete textbooks on plantation forestry for tropical countries. FAO. 2000. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. Main report. http www fao.org forestry fo...

Main Characteristics of Tropical Montane Forests

Drastic changes in elevation, precipitation, and direction of prevailing winds across small alti-tudinal ranges generate high levels of species' and habitat diversity in tropical montane forests. Also, because of their cool ambient temperatures, tropical montane forests serve as refugia of relict tree populations that are more typical of temperate latitudes. Moreover, tropical montane forests are home to unique vertebrate fauna for example, mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in...

Cultural Keystone Species

In the same way that an ecosystem is dependent on ecological keystone species, an entire culture or society may be dependent on cultural keystone species (CKS).298 These species are by definition central to the survival and essence of a culture for a number of reasons, including their link to the culture's myths, rituals, religion, etc. Identifying these CKS and using them to promote forest protection and restoration in a landscape can be a valuable contribution to the restoration of forest...

NTFPs and Forest Certification

Certification is a policy tool that attempts to foster responsible resource stewardship through the labelling of consumer products. Even if forest certification has tended to focus on timber products, opportunities exist to promote sound ecological and social practices in NTFPs' management to support restoration in degraded forest landscapes of outstanding biodiversity and increase local communities' revenues and trade opportunities through this market tool. The certification systems that are...

Forest Landscape Restoration in Context

Nigel Dudley, Stephanie Mansourian, and Daniel Vallauri Forest landscape restoration is grounded in ecoregion conservation and is defined as a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes. Such an approach helps achieve a balance between human needs and those of biodiversity by restoring a range of forest functions within a landscape and accepting the trade-offs that result. People have been actively using forests...

Plan For Restoration

Protection measures and restoration interventions should be adequately planned. Drawing up a medium-term management rest oration plan may be necessary. A management plan requires information such as an inventory of the standing stock and its condition, including composition, size, and stem quality. An assessment of the regeneration (seedlings, saplings, and advanced growth of marketable or preferred timber and nontimber species) should be considered. Information on nontimber forest products...

Contributors List

Manager, Forest Landscape Restoration Thomas F. Alnutt Senior Conservation Specialist Conservation Science Programme World Wildlife Fund-US, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20037 E-mail tom.allnutt gmail.com CIFOR Regional Office for Latin America c o EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental Trav. Dr. Eneas Pinheiro s n CEP 66.010-080 Belem Para, Brazil E-mail e.almeida cgiar.org James Aronson Restoration Ecology Group CEFE (CNRS-U.M.R. 5175) 1919, Route de Mende F-34293 Montpellier, France E-mail james.aronson...

Rehabilitation of Log Landings and Skid Trails446

Overlogging and forest fires, or combinations of the two, have created millions of hectares of medium to heavily disturbed forests in many parts of Southeast Asia. One of the main technical approaches for restoration in these forests has been the establishment of enrichment plantings, either in lines or in gaps. Line planting has been used if the surrounding trees are small (< 10m). The gap planting method is especially suitable when the surrounding trees are taller (> 10m). In practice,...

Examples

Fire Management in Jarrah Forest Restoration on Bauxite Mines in Western Australia460 Alcoa World Alumina Australia commenced mining bauxite in the Jarrah forest of western Australia in 1963. Since then, 10,600 hectares have been rehabilitated. The climate is typically Mediterranean with winter rainfall and summer drought. Early restoration efforts were based on imported species of pine and eucalypt from Eastern Australia. This exotic vegetation is very resilient to natural forms of...

Reasons to Restore

It must be recognised, however, that what remains of TDF today are not especially attractive to most people, and only rarely do they capture the attention of tourists. Their low annual productivity makes TDF of minor interest to foresters or farmers. Therefore, lobbying for their conservation, and, more so still, their restoration, is problematic. However, biodiversity criteria alone more than justify the need for greater efforts, especially at the landscape and ecoregional scales. What's more,...