Participatory Process

If cultural values are to be used as an objective of forest restoration in a landscape, a participatory process will be necessary, and it may Document the traditional knowledge with local people to identify cultural drivers for the restoration of forest functions in a landscape. Together with local people, identify the current status of those cultural values. Through focus groups, discussions, and other locally applicable participatory tools, identify the links between those cultural values and...

Central America

Framework Convention on Climate Change allows for governments to offset some of their carbon emissions, or trade other countries' emissions, through tree planting. Initial proposals focussed largely on the establishment of intensive plantations of exotic species, but research suggests that the long-term carbon sequestration benefits of such plantations are very limited, as they are used mainly for short-term products such as paper and cardboard that are quickly...

Home Gardens

Home gardens have been described as living gene banks of indigenous varieties, rare culti-vars, landraces, and species, as well as introduced species.301 These multiple species have been conserved through generations. The selection of plants in these gardens is influenced by climate, soils, household preferences, and dietary habits. Home gardens in the tropics are a valuable land-use system to restore traditional fruits, nuts, medicinal plants, and other indigenous species of cultural value to...

Interventions

A monitoring and evaluation system was developed to measure progress on forest landscape restoration in the Central Truong Son Landscape Biodiversity Conservation Initiative's Action Plan by WWF working in cooperation with the Government of Vietnam's Forest Protection Department.206 Over 60 stakeholder meetings took place at the national, provincial, district, and commune level to identify around 30 core indicators. Indicators measure progress on four fronts forest condition and biodiversity,...

Promoting Natural Dynamics

Relatively inexpensive, passive restoration techniques are best suited to forests where, after controlling or limiting the sources of degradation, ecosystem resilience is high. This is the case in some overgrazed or severely burnt ecosystems, where the exclusion or complete restriction of livestock grazing or fire for several years is sometimes sufficient to promote self-recovery. Because plantations, especially in dry conditions, require considerable technical and financial investment, it is...

Additional References

Palmer, M.A., Ambrose, R.F., and Poff, N.L. 1997. Ecological theory and community restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 5 291-300. Temperton, V.M., Hobbs, R.J., Nuttle, T., and Halle, S., eds. 2004. Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice. Island Press, Washington, DC. Walker, L.R., and Smith, S.D. 1997. Impacts of invasive plants on community and ecosystem properties. In Luken, J.O., and Thieret, J.W., eds. Assessment and Management of Plant...

Additional Reading

International Tropical Timber Organisation. 2002. ITTO Guidelines for the Restoration, Management, and Rehabilitation of Degraded and Secondary Tropical Forests. ITTO Policy Development Series No. 13, Yokohama, Japan. Moguel, P., and Toledo, V.M. 1999. Biodiversity conservation in traditional coffee systems of Mexico. Conservation Biology 13 11-21. Pimentel, D., Stachow, U., Takacs, D.A., et al. 1992. Conserving biological diversity in agricultural forestry systems most biological diversity...

Communal Systems

Several researchers have pointed to the fact that communal forest tenure, especially in conditions of market economies, requires a critical group size to be effective, where enforcement of rights and regulations can be optimally implemented, and where economies of scale and diversification make opportunity costs affordable, particularly when the community has to invest in forest restoration or reforestation. In other words, in any particular situation of communal forest ownership, it seems that...

Controlling Invasive Species

Removal of IAS often forms an important component of efforts to restore forest quality to existing forests. Because of their adaptability and release from their natural prey or enemy, alien species are very difficult to control and can seriously hamper restoration efforts. Often a major factor of restoration is the removal of invasive species for example, control of Rhododendron ponticum from the Himalayas is a major task in many U.K. nature reserves. In recent decades control has typically...

Next Steps

Some of the key next steps that have been already identified include the following Setting common targets in landscape Using a merge of the ecological and the socioeconomic data, it will be possible to identify compromise targets for the landscape in consultation with stakeholders. Partnerships Key partnerships with stakeholders will be important to the process, from a point of view of both political support and technical complementarity. Setting up a monitoring system at the landscape level To...

References

The impact of rubber on the forest landscape in Borneo. In Angelsen, A., and Kaimowitz, D. eds. Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation. CAB International, Wallingford and New York, pp. 367-381. Landauer, K., and Brazil, M. eds. 1990. Tropical Home Gardens. United Nations University,Tokyo. Nair, P.K.R. 1993. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Boston and London. Place, F., Franzel, S., Noordin, Q., and Jama, B. 2003. Improved fallows in Kenya...

Why Evaluate and Monitor

Worldwide, monitoring and evaluation have become in the past decade a major issue199 with strong repercussions in national forest policies both for conservation (e.g., efficiency of protected areas, status of endangered species) and management (e.g., sustainability standards, impact assessment, ecocertification, and market driven demand). At various scales (from local to international), issues like the design of the best framework for evaluation and monitoring, the choice of an efficient but...

Restoring Habitats for Species Requiring Deadwood

Old, dying, and decaying trees are important element in natural forests, providing habitats for numerous specialised species. For example, scientists estimate 20 to 25 percent (or some 4000 to 5000 species) of all forest-dwelling species are dependent on deadwood in Finnish boreal forests.238 Forestry practises have made forests tidier and the amount of deadwood has fallen to critically low levels, resulting in a high numbers of those species relying on deadwood becoming endangered. Therefore,...

Stephanie Mansourian and Pedro Regato

The European Commission has been promoting afforestation since 1992 under the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) (Directive 2080 92) as a solution to reducing agricultural land and therefore, agricultural surpluses (which are currently supported financially through subsidies). More recently a sister scheme has been developed, the Special Action for Pre-accession Measures for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD), which is applicable to European Union (EU) accession countries and covers the...

Tree Cover Soil Fertility and Agriculture

Forest soils are often fertile, especially where forest ecosystems are relatively undisturbed and have been able to cycle and recycle essential plant nutrients and organic matter over long periods. Even where forest soils are poor, significant amounts of nutrients are often held in the above-ground biomass. In relatively young secondary forests or woody fallows, organic matter from tree litter (leaves, bark, branches, etc.) can quickly accumulate. Moreover, the deep root systems of trees are...

Word About the

The explosion of Web sites makes it tempting to jump onto the bandwagon. But be aware that while nice to have, a Web site requires long-term investment in resources in maintenance as well as marketing to draw in visitors. Also, a Web site is not always the panacea for all communications. For example, in many countries, target audiences will not have access to a computer. Another common error is the failure to regularly update a Web site, which can quickly become obsolete. allow for quick...

Centre for Tropical Forest Science CTFS Smithsonian Institute Washington DC

The CTFS has developed an international network of standardised forest dynamics plots. Within each plot, every tree over 1 cm in diameter is marked, measured, plotted on a map, and identified according to species. The typical forest dynamics plot is 50 hectares, containing up to 360,000 individual trees. An initial tree census and periodic follow-up censuses yield long-term information on species' growth, mortality, regeneration, distribution, and productivity, which currently provides an...

Active or Passive Restoration

In some cases it is clear that restoration is already urgently necessary. At this point the first question for a community, conservation organisation, or government becomes one of choice between passive and active restoration. Passive restoration, which means creating suitable conditions for restoration to happen through natural processes (e.g., by fencing an area against grazing or preventing artificial fire) is usually considered to be the most desirable solution, being simpler, cheaper, and...

Analytical Tools

A large number of analytical tools and skills that are used in participatory forest manage ment, project management, and development can be brought to bear in conflict management. Examples include participatory appraisal,110 a variety of approaches for measuring and analysing sustainability,111 and more general tools that help to frame and guide further analysis, such as STEEP, SWOT, problem trees, and forcefield analyses 12 The key is to use those that are relevant for different stakeholders...

Acronyms

ACG Area Conservaci n Guanacaste CAP common agriculture policy CATIE Centro Agron mico Tropical de Investigaci n y Ense anza CBD Convention on Biological Diversity CBFM community-based forest management CDM clean development mechanism CEAM Centro de Estudios Ambientales Mediterr neos (Mediterranean Centre for Environmental Studies) CIFOR Centre for International Forestry Research DFID U.K. Department for International Development DG Directorate General EC European Commission ECCM Edinburgh...

Choosing Species Designs and Management to Stabilise Degraded Soils

Recent research in Costa Rica, Brazil, and Argentina investigated plantation tree species that could serve to ameliorate soil properties in degraded lands.345 In Costa Rica, in just 3 years soil conditions improved in the tree plantations compared to abandoned pasture. In the top 15 cm, soil nitrogen and organic matter were higher under the trees than in pasture, with values close to those found in 20-year-old forests. The highest values for soil organic matter, total nitrogen, calcium, and...

Capacity Building

Undertaking a process of analysis often requires capacity building. Some stakeholders will be familiar with negotiating from a business perspective. Others will see negotiations as embedded within their own culture and society the way they negotiate and problem solve will be different. Others may use legal frameworks or a scientific approach to analysis. Again, addressing the process of analysis is itself a part of the overall approach to managing conflict. Capacity building skills and tools...

Capacity

A restoration programme carried out over large areas is likely to require many different skills, for instance negotiating skills, lobbying skills, monitoring skills, small enterprise development skills, plantation skills, nursery development skills, etc. It is important to ensure that local capacity to support the long-term restoration effort exists. In many cases this requires training as well as the partnering of different institutions to share their respective knowledge and expertise.

Brokering a Satisfactory Outcome

The next requirement in an equitable trade-off process is to allow genuine discussion on tradeoffs between different stakeholders. There is usually a need for someone to help facilitate this process, ideally a person without a stake (perhaps a trusted outsider) who can act as an honest broker.90 The role of the broker is to encourage an open discussion and to help facilitate a process whereby different stakeholders feel that they are gaining something from the process, even if that may mean...

Amelioration of Toxic Conditions in Mines in South Africa

Reforestation often involves addressing toxic site conditions. Landfills can have toxic liquids and gases mine tailings can have extreme pH values or toxic levels of metals in addition to surface compaction or erosion problems. Reforestation of dunes mined for various ores in South Africa involved topsoil replacement, windbreaks, and sowing of various grasses that provided a nurse crop for slower-germinating native Acacia karoo trees from the seedbank. The acacia trees, in turn, promoted soil...

Buffer Zone Restoration to Reduce Nutrient Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

In 1983 federal, state, and local stakeholders established a programme to restore water quality and health conditions in the Chesapeake Bay watershed in Virginia and Maryland. The objective of the programme was to increase water quality and habitat resources within this formerly forested watershed (forest covered 95 percent of the watershed 300 years ago versus 6 percent today). One of the main measures was the restoration of streamside forests along the hydrographic network. After restoring...

Attempting to Rehabilitate Rainforests in East Kalimantan Indonesia

Following the severe fires that burnt through Grand Park Bukit Soeharto in East Kalimantan in the 1980s and early 1990s, the timber concession companies that had responsibility for areas elsewhere in the province were required to rehabilitate the park. This has taken the form of narrow plantings of an introduced Acacia species and roadside signs identifying the company responsible for each section of the rehabilitation. While it has reestablished tree cover, the vegetation is introduced and...

Brief Description of Fire Impacts

Fire has played, and will continue to play, a major role in shaping ecosystems throughout the world. Fires can produce local extinctions of species, alter species' composition and suc-cessional stages, and bring about substantial changes in ecosystem functioning (including soils and hydrology). In almost all forest ecosystems throughout the world, humans have altered the natural fire regimes by changing the frequency and intensity of fires. People have excluded or suppressed fires and changed...

Communicating Proactively

Proactive communications means having a concerted and long-term plan that supports the restoration strategy. The plan involves knowing the following Why we are communicating (the communications objective) In some cases communications may be for fund-raising purposes, in others to mobilise public opinion, and yet in others, to share knowledge. Who we need to communicate with (the target audience) These could be NGOs, decision makers, students, farmers, etc. Unfortunately, they are rarely a...

Burning

Burning is one forest restoration method. The sites picked for burning are usually of low or medium fertility, because highly fertile forests are usually too moist to be burned. When the forest is burned, some of the trees are charred, some die immediately, and some die over a period of years. As a result, wood in all stages of decay is continually produced in the area. The diversity of tree species usually increases after a fire. The new tree stands sometimes form in clusters, sometimes...

Changing Companies Practices

Traditionally, conservation organisations have not worked much with the private sector. Yet given that the largest companies are larger financial players than most governments and that they often determine future land-use options (e.g., mining companies, plantation companies, infrastructure companies), it is important to work with them in any large-scale restoration effort in order to ensure that restoration is well integrated in their plans. This is, for instance, an effective way of...

China Restoration Benefits and Incentives

Liu Dachang120 has extensively researched the experience of China on forest policies, and concludes that generally user rights on trees are of greater importance than forest ownership per se for sustainable management and particularly for tree planting, reforestation, and restoration. For example, Liu Dachang shows that despite clear tenure policies on forestlands in China, in periods of stringent protective regulations on trees there was no incentive for reforestation strict market...

Deciding Where to Do Restoration When There Are Choices

In the preceding discussion, the need for restoration fell into two broad categories increasing the area of a particular forest type for representation or for particular species processes, and restoring particular landscape features, especially corridors, which allow specific ecological processes to operate. Sometimes there are choices of where restoration is most appropriate. All other things being equal, it is generally easier to restore the less degraded example of a forest type, since less...

Creative Thinking

People and agencies tend to think and react in the ways that they always have done. The way we think is constrained by many things, including our experience, worldview, education, and degree of comfort with new ideas. Creative thinking is about breaking these patterns to look at situations in new ways thinking outside the box. Creative thinking is an important asset to conflict management at all stages, not just analysis. Often, a breakthrough can come when creative thinking allows the...

Examples

This section reviews fuelwood plantations through time. 2.1. Industrial Plantation Era 1960s and 1970s The key elements of this era are characterised by technical approaches to forest restoration and the creation of timber plantations for projected fuelwood and timber shortages the assumption that industrialisation of all sectors including forestry would bring social and economic benefits to all sectors of society, with the benefits trickling down and the application of technical and somewhat...

Example An Hypothetical Example for Negotiating the Restoration of a Landscape

There are as yet few examples where a truly negotiated discussion and trade-offs led to a restored landscape. A theoretical process to achieve this was presented at a workshop in Madagascar.94 Possible steps to reach a negotiated outcome for a restored landscape are as follows Each stakeholder group describes the landscape as it was 50 years ago, the steps that 94 Taken from a presentation by Tom Erdmann given at a workshop on Forest Landscape Restoration in Madagascar in March 2003. turned it...

Explanation of the Issue

Water is, in theory, a renewable resource. Yet, the profligacy with which it has been used, coupled with population growth and increasing per capita demands, means that provision of adequate, safe water supplies is a major concern.285 World water withdrawals rose sixfold over the last century, and it is estimated that we already use well over half of accessible runoff. For several countries, reliance on non-renewable (or only slowly renewable) ground-water sources masks a problem that will...

An Emerging Framework for Forest Landscape Restoration

As a result of compiling this book and the key lessons identified, it appears that there is an urgent need for a comprehensive framework that will help managers make choices (providing options) based on state of degradation, impact of forest loss degradation, funding, available human resources, political and institutional considerations, size of the area, aim of the restoration, etc. This section outlines such a framework for restoring forests in landscapes and includes under each element the...

Cultural Values Can Help Promote Restoration

Specific cultural values can be used as a trigger for restoration. In degraded landscapes, a number of the identified forest functions and values to restore may be cultural. For instance, the forestry sector in Scotland has significantly evolved from a timber-based industry to a more community and culturally centred one, in response to demands from local people for recreational and aesthetically pleasing native woodlands representative of their own cultural identity (rather than nonnative...

Description of Temperate Forests

Temperate forests cover more than 20 million km2 of the Earth's surface, including forest types such as boreal conifer forests, the mixed deciduous forests of the United States, Europe, western Asia, China and Japan, and the evergreen rain forests of Chile, New Zealand, and Tasmania.393 In the Northern Hemisphere, dominant tree genera are typically members of the oak family (Fagaceae) or conifers such as pines (Pinus) and spruces (Picea). Southern Hemisphere forests are often dominated by...

Characteristics and Biological Wealth

Reflecting the very wide range of geological substrates on which they occur and the variable, unpredictable climate to which they are subject, TDFs harbour an astonishing variety of plants and animals that are remarkable in their structure, ecophysiology, chemistry, and ecology. They also show exceptionally high rates of endemism in all major groups of organisms. Sadly, however, the ecological importance and conservation value of TDFs only began to be recognised in the last 10 to 15 years, that...

Consider Underlying Causes Halting Natural Succession

Many forest restoration programmes fail because they do not address the underlying causes of degradation.A number of social,polit-ical, and economic factors are often the underlying cause of forest loss or degradation. It is equally important to identify the biophysical barriers to recovery through natural successional processes. For example, livestock may contribute to degradation in some situations but be an important part of the recovery plan in other circumstances. Forests limited by...

Design Minimal Interventions to Achieve Goals

Will the site recover within an acceptable time frame in the absence of active restoration efforts If so, will it provide the desired combination of goods and services Answers to these key questions may be found by examining two types of reference sites. Selecting reference sites that have not been damaged provides an approximation of the potential goods and services. Reference sites that have been similarly damaged and allowed to recover naturally for different periods of time provide...

Coca in the Amazon299

In various indigenous communities (Barasana, Desana, Uitoto, etc.) in the Amazon, coca is considered to facilitate cultural transmission of knowledge from elderly individuals to young adults. By chewing the powdered coca leaves, sages and apprentices attempt to please the Masters of Nature (semideities in their cosmology) with a valued gift. The importance of the coca plant for these communities lies in its essential role to allow communications with the 298 Cristancho and Vining, 2004. 299...

Communicating Forest Landscape Restoration

Because of its complexity, communicating forest landscape restoration is challenging. Messages should ideally cover the following Who is going to benefit from the restoration How can the target audience help Messages have to be relevant to each target audience. For example, for landowners in New Caledonia who are not at all enthusiastic about nature conservation, telling them that the island has only 1 percent of dry forests left may not be motivating or inspiring enough to make them take any...

Definitions

The literature often does not distinguish tenure from property or ownership of forests, although in a more general sense tenure could be linked to custom-defined bundles of rights that are socially acknowledged, and property would be identified as a status in which customary tenure becomes more institutional through legal and political procedures and means. Ownership or property itself is in essence a bundle of rights which are defined according to the nature of the subject and the legal frame...

Ensuring that Restoration Is Not Used as an Excuse for Uncontrolled Exploitation

One reason many conservationists still balk at restoration is that it can be seen to provide a justification for failing to address the problems of degradation. Given the cost, duration, and difficulty of restoration, we do not believe that this is a viable argument. However, the fact that conservation organisations encourage restoration should not be interpreted as licence for degradation, because in many circumstances restoration activities will not be able to recover all of the values that...

Controlling Invasive Grasses in Hawaii to Promote Restoration of a Unique Ecosystem

In Hawaii, the invasion of alien grasses has dramatically increased the frequency and intensity of fires in dry forests. This has contributed to the conversion of almost all native dry forests to grasslands dominated by alien species. A study was launched to investigate the role that landscape-level herbicide applications followed by native plant reforestation plays in reducing fire fuel load hazards and reversing the cumulative adverse ecosystem level effects of monotypic stands of invasive...

Choosing a Method for Restoration

A variety of approaches have been used to restore tropical moist broad-leaved forests, and some of these are summarised in Overview of Technical approaches to Restoring Tree Cover at the Site Level. Where funds are limited and regrowth forests are widespread it is probably more appropriate simply to protect these secondary forests from further disturbances and allow successional development to take place. Under most situations species-rich and structurally complex forests will then develop over...

Creation of Small Openings

Small openings are usually created in young, homogeneous conifer forests. The openings are created by felling all conifers within an area of a few hundred square metres. There are two main methods. Small openings, in which new deciduous trees may grow, can be created. Alternatively, conifers can be felled around the existing deciduous trees which are losing the competition for light and living space. The creation of small openings increases the amount of deciduous trees, and increases the...

Environmental Change

Planning for inevitable environmental change (even without the additional spectre of anthropogenic climate change) is a key precept in conservation. Ecological systems are by their very nature dynamic, and it is important to incorporate large habitat areas and sufficient connectivity between habitat areas in order to build resiliency into the protected area network. Increased connectivity is the main option available to conservation planners trying to anticipate the effects of anthropogenic...

Examples Restoration and the Four Conservation Goals

Conceptually, it is a relatively simple matter to decide whether restoration is necessary or not. By selecting conservation targets that are applicable to the aforementioned four goals of conservation, it should quickly become clear whether or not the relevant ecoregion or priority landscape still contains the necessary components to satisfy all four goals. If there are elements missing or the ecoregion landscape is too fragmented, some restoration is probably necessary. At the basic level of...

Future Needs

Priority areas for further development are Policies that encourage the development of natural, diverse forests Government policies can accelerate destruction of natural forests or they can be crafted to encourage the development of natural and managed forests that combine production and conservation functions and reduce pressures on natural forests of high conservation value. Improved understanding of successional processes and barriers to natural recovery There are numerous gaps in our...

Answer the Questions Restoring What for Whom and

These are the most important questions yet they are frequently not properly addressed in restoration projects. These questions should be answered by real stakeholders local people, conservation organisations, etc. those who will do the work or incur the costs and benefits. Avoid programmes that are expert driven and ensure that development assistance agencies stay honest, that they are explicit about their real objectives and recognise that they also are interested parties.

Examples from Temperate Europe

In Denmark, afforestation of former arable land with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) has been done extensively. An evaluation of soils under these plantations with ages ranging from 1 to 29 years, and a mixed plantation with both species (200 years of age) showed considerable accumulation of organic matter in the tree biomass and in the soil, especially in the older stands.343 In the southwestern Alps in France, the forest service has attempted forest restoration...

Finland Southern Region

An active restoration policy has been developed under METSO (forest biodiversity pro- gramme for southern Finland) with goals of restoring 33,000 hectares, including prescribed burning on 960 hectares, an increase in dead and decaying trees on 10,500 hectares, and creating small gaps in stands on 5200 hectares and peatland restoration on 16,000 hectares. So far, 56 operational restoration plans have been prepared and some have already been implemented.256

Finland Restoring Natural Fire Disturbance Patterns by Prescribed Burning

Controlled burning is used to restore forests where fire suppression has resulted in the decline of species that need fire for germination or to remove competitors. Finland's Natural Heritage Services' department uses prescribed burning in protected areas, particularly in the south of the country, and to date almost 4000 hectares have been restored in this way. Burning has to be carried out with extreme care when weather conditions are suitable, that is, when the forest is not too wet to burn...

Forest Policies

There are three main reasons to support policy work that integrates natural disturbances into national forest laws and science-based management guidelines. First, forest managers are usually reactive to storms rather than proactive. We need to anticipate forest damage due to storms. Second, as stated earlier, national policies and subsidies tend currently to support rapid implementation of salvage logging in the field. Third, a rapid response to such disorganising, catastrophic, psychologically...

Fuel Management Versus Fire Suppression A Worldwide Overview

After years of investing in fire suppression, many developed countries have had to recognise that high-intensity fires are out of reach of suppression efforts, due to high fuel accumulation. Economic analysis shows easily that the cost per hectare of prescribed burning or thinning is cheaper than extinction,350 but there is a lot of discussion about the optimum amount of treated forest surface, due both to the difficulties in analysing the fuel management productivity, and to the lack of...

France The Consequences of a Lack of Ecological Monitoring Step

In the early 1860s, an ambitious Restoration of Mountain Lands initiative was set up by the French forest administration in the southern Alps, primarily for the purpose of erosion control. A wide range of plant material was used, including native shrubs and grasses, but no particular preference was given to native trees for replanting. Over 60,000 hectares were thus planted between 1860 and 1914, using mainly Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. nigra Host. These efforts have proved effective at stopping...

Forest Degradation in the Mediterranean An Old Problem with a New Face

The Mediterranean basin has been enduring heavy and extensive human use for millennia. Throughout this long history, periods of resource overexploitation have led to significant forest loss and the reshaping of landscapes. Already in the fourth century b.c., Plato warned about both the degradation of Greek forests in the uplands and soil loss Hills that were once covered by forests and produced abundant pasture now produce only food for bees. In the past, fluctuations in human population were...

Forest Ownership An Overview

The reports Who Owns the World's Forests112 and Who Conserves the World's Forests 113 indicate that globally, 77 percent of forestlands are owned by governments, 7 percent by indigenous and local communities, and 12 percent by individual and corporate landowners, and that in the last 15 years the forest area owned and administered by indigenous and local communities has doubled, reaching nearly 400 million hectares. This reflects important changes in forest ownership worldwide. This chapter...

Find and Protect Reference Landscapes

Whether or not the objective of forest landscape restoration is to restore the original vegetation cover, it will always be useful to have reference areas that are as near as possible to the natural conditions of the area (see Identifying and Using Reference Landscapes for Restoration). These are useful as benchmarks, for understanding ecological processes, for education, and as sources of plants and animals to be used in assisted restoration. Much has been written about attempts to restore a...

How to Evaluate The Difficult Selection of Criteria and Indicators

A set of pertinent indicators should be agreed upon and tested to reflect the restoration advances for each issue. They should reveal current conditions, and reflect on what has been done in the past by foresters and other forest managers. They should capture information on ecosystem health (i.e., relative absence of disease or pests of epidemic proportions) as well as diversity and productivity at plot and landscape scales. They should also reveal to what extent the explicitly...

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Stephanie Mansourian Consultant WWF International Avenue Mont Blanc Gland 1196 Daniel Vallauri WWF France 6 Rue des Fabres 13001 Marseille France Nigel Dudley Consultant Equilibrium 47 The Quays Cumberland Road BS1 6UQ United Kingdom 1986 Panda symbol WWF WWF is a WWF Registered Trademark Cover Illustrations Photo Cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani), tree seedling. Photo Credit WWF-Canon Michael Gunther. Background photo Mt. Rinjani, Lombok, Indonesia, Agri Klintuni Boedhihartono. Library of...

Information Needed for Threat Assessment

For restoration programmes, a good threat assessment provides actionable information that can be used to define the scope of interventions. Information should be timely, verifiable, and collected in a cost- and time-effective manner. Restoration programmes are not immune to the all too common pitfall of investing considerable time and resources in collecting a tremendous amount of data that, while perhaps new and interesting, is not particularly relevant to making decisions about the best way...

France Fontainebleau

Fontainebleau is a 136-hectare forest reserve last cut over in 1372, protected since 1853 and consisting mainly of beech with oak, hornbeam, and lime. Volumes of deadwood are 142 to 256m3 hectare, with higher volume following a severe storm. Volume is linked to decay time, with higher volumes but shorter retention time in the case of stands being suddenly knocked down by storms and lower, more constant volumes when trees fall naturally with age. This contrasts markedly with the current national...

Intensive Restoration After Mining

One of the most intensive ecological restoration projects in the humid tropics is that which took place after bauxite mining in Brazil. In this case extensive research by the mining company had identified the plant and animal species present and revealed something of their ecology. Restoration was expensive and involved intensive site preparation (re-spreading topsoil, deep ripping) and replanting. Seedlings of 160 species were established at densities of around 2500 trees per hactare....

Forestry Related Incentives European Union

Two key programmes of the European Commission (EC) that provide incentives for afforestation and reforestation are the Community Regulation Directive 2080 92 (later introduced as part of the Common Agricultural Policy, CAP), which promotes afforestation of agricultural land, and the Special Action for Pre-Accession Measures for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD), which focusses on rural development in European Union (EU) accession countries and includes funding for afforestation. Both...

General Principles

The restoration of floodplain forest is often achieved at three scales 1. Catchment scale The improvement (e.g., more natural levels) of controlled factors (discharge, bedload supply) can be done at the catchment scale or in an upstream branch of the river network. Such hydrological and sedimentary river improvements have positive effects on floodplain habitats in terms of structure and diversity. The success of such self-restoration options, when they can be promoted, are difficult to evaluate...

How Many Species

Restoration is often carried out to reestablish biological diversity and to also restore key ecological processes and functions. One unresolved question is the number of species needed to achieve this latter objective. Must all species be reestablished, or is there a point beyond which increases in species' richness may not provide any further benefits The answer to the question is still unresolved, although it seems that species richness per se may not be as important as the structural or...

Hedgerow Intercropping

Like improved fallow, hedgerow intercropping or alley cropping is a soil fertility maintenance or restoration practice. It involves establishing permanent hedgerows of shrubs and small trees often species that fix nitrogen in agricultural fields. The hedgerows are periodically pruned back and the biomass incorporated into the soil between them where crops are grown. Despite promising results of experimental trials at many agricultural research stations, the practice has not been widely adopted...

Harvesting Growing and Planting NTFPs

There are a number of ecological guidelines and techniques applicable for restoring NTFP source species in degraded forest land, described in several chapters of this book. In all cases, specific research and field testing is needed to get the necessary know-how on harvesting, growing, and planting the wide range of trees, shrubs, and herbs native to each forest ecosystem, as well as to facilitate natural regen- eration and habitat improvement techniques. Standardised protocols for seed...

Improved Economic Analysis

Restoring landscapes is expensive, but can and should yield economic benefits. The valuation of environmental goods and services is still an imprecise science. The valuation of the subsistence products used by poor subsistence farmers is also a challenge. But all large-scale restoration initiatives have to be rooted in economic realism. The cost-benefit ratios are essential in determining what is possible and desirable. There are countless examples of forest restoration programmes that have...

Identifying Stakeholders

The need for trade-offs arises because different stakeholder groups have different expectations or needs from a landscape. To understand trade-offs when dealing with a restoration programme in a landscape, the first step is to identify all the stakeholders. Often stakeholders are characterised by their degree of influence and importance.89 The results of such an analysis can be categorised into primary stakeholders, secondary stakeholders, and external stakeholders. Primary stakeholders have...

Increasing the Amount of Dead and Decaying Wood

The amount of dead and decaying wood is increased primarily in areas where the natural continuum of decaying wood is in danger of being broken, and in areas lacking decaying wood but with valuable species in the vicinity. Dead and decaying wood can be produced by stripping the bark off trees while they are standing, or by cutting them down. Both stripping and felling are mainly done by chainsaw. Stripping irons or marking tools can also be used for stripping. Excavators can be used to fell...

Grainfor Green Programme China

The goal of China's Grain-for-Green programme, launched in 2000, was to convert steep cultivated land to forest and pasture. It was initiated as a result of severe flooding in China that was blamed on excessive logging and cultivation along the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. The programme is expected to turn more than 340,000 hectares of farmland and 430,000 hectares of bare mountain back to forests. These activities are to be carried out by the communities and subsidised by the government. In...

Key Points to Retain

The biggest carbon reductions should be achieved through a reduction in emissions rather than an expansion of sinks. The carbon market is still in its infancy. The potential value of forests as carbon sinks is important. With agreements such as the Kyoto protocol as well as voluntary carbon markets, it is possible to finance carbon knowledge projects that test out, monitor, and improve knowledge on forest restoration and carbon. An approach that integrates, among others, a carbon sink target...

Intensity and Timing of Management Interventions

Managers concerned with maximising timber production will make decisions on a variety of interventions including whether or not to prune trees, when to carry out thinnings, and when to undertake a final clear-felling. All of these decisions have consequences for biodiversity and various ecological processes such as nutrient cycling. Biodiversity is usually favoured by enhanced spatial complexity. This means interventions that promote a mosaic of disturbances and recovery stages are preferable...

India

The Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and Bandipur National Park are part of the wildlife-rich protected areas within the Nilgiri Biosphere in the Western Ghat Mountains of southern India. These reserves are sites of long-term ecological research by the Centre for Ecological Sciences. A 50-hectare permanent plot in Mudumalai, where the dynamics of a tropical dry forest is investigated in relation to fire and herbivory by large mammals, is part of the international network of large-scale plots...

Madagascar

Agency for International Development is partnering with the Communes of Ampasy-Nahampoana and Mandromodromotra, the Department of Water and Forests (La Circonscription des Eaux et Forets-CIREF) and QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM) to undertake forest restoration activities in the Mandena Conservation Zone. The region's forests are highly fragmented as a result of extraction of forest resources to meet the rising fuelwood needs of a growing population and increasing...

Improve Knowledge

During the last few decades, ecologists and geo-morphologists have made important progress in understanding stream corridor response to river system evolution. A better quantification is now needed of the influence of site conditions on species' development and growth and on communities' composition, and diversity as well as better comprehension of the potential trajectories of the communities (i.e., rupture thresholds, lag of time response). To assess the value of floodplain forests,...

Latvia

Latvian forestry inherited legislation crafted by the Soviet Union, which included the use of large clearcuts and a requirement to manage forests including removal of deadwood. As a result, dead standing and lying timber is in short supply in many woodlands, leading to a decline in many saproxylic (deadwood living) species.160 This is particularly serious at a European scale because Latvia's forests contain some of the richest biodiversity in the continent. WWF in Latvia has worked with the...

Introduction

Since the start of its Forest Landscape Restoration programme in 2000, WWF, the global conservation organisation, has faced a number of challenges related to (1) the planning of restoration in large scales, (2) the integration of social and ecological dimensions, and (3) the implementation of restoration programmes on a large scale. A more detailed analysis of specific lessons learned from forest landscape restoration projects can be found in this book in the part entitled Lessons Learned and...

Grazing Management that Maintains Ground Cover

Poor grazing management probably contributes to more land degradation than any other practice, even in forested environments. Grazing practices that allow plants to periodically grow and reproduce will stabilise soil resources more effectively. Recently planted Figure 50.3. Following a wildfire in Chipinque Ecological Park outside Monterrey Mexico, the remaining woody debris was used to create above ground obstructions to reduce erosion, hold water, and increase the natural recruitment of...

Initiating or Improving Tree Cover

Directing Ecological Successions Directing ecological successions can be done in a number of ways, using different species and approaches. The aim and desire is to initiate a process whereby nature takes over. The following points need to be considered when attempting to stimulate natural succession The founder effect The initial species chosen will have a determining effect on the future succession in the landscape, which cannot always be anticipated. Using nearby intact forests The...

Learning from Past Events Adapting Guidelines and Pilot Sites

In terms of scientific knowledge, the needs lie in synthesising and widely promoting key ideas, rather than developing new research, although some important questions, such as the comparative resistance to storms of mixed or uneven-aged forest stands vs. even-aged stands, and the economics of salvage logging, need some development. More could also be learnt from studying the old-growth forest ecology of protected forests. Another important need is the adaptation of science-based management...

Improved Fallow

Improved fallow practices generally involve planting or directly seeding shrubby legumes in agricultural fields that have lost their soil fertility. Once the cropping cycle is ready to begin again, these shrubs are usually cut down and their biomass incorporated into the soil as green manure. In some cases, the practice can commence in the last season or two of agricultural production if farmers retain regeneration of soil-enhancing woody plants in their fields during weeding, or even direct...

Info

The Impacts of Degradation and Forest Loss on Human Well-Being and Its Social and Political Relevance for Restoration Forests the poor man's overcoat (Westoby, 1989). Forests have an important role to play in alleviating poverty worldwide in two senses. First, they serve a vital safety net function, helping rural people avoid poverty, or helping those who are poor to mitigate their plight. Second, forests have untapped potential to actually lift some rural people out of poverty (Sunderlin et...

Natural Regeneration Combined with Grazing in Corrimony Scotland306

In 1997 the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (an NGO) acquired land in Corrimony, Scotland. The main objective was to increase habitat for capercaillie and black grouse. The long-term vision was to have at least two thirds of woodland cover restored with an emphasis on natural regeneration. However, because 99 percent of natural regeneration is broadleaf, it was decided to plant copses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in areas that were remote from seed sources. When the pines mature...

Marketing

Marketing or the selling of projects to potential funders or donors requires good communications and research. Just as you need to understand your target audience when communicating, so it is with marketing. You need to 25. Marketing and Communications Opportunities Ill Table 25.1. Different messages for different audiences. Development organisations working locally Conservation organisations and programmes already implementing FLR Conservation organisations and programmes not yet involved in...

Negotiation Process

Negotiating involves meeting to discuss ways of reaching a mutual agreement or arrangement. A negotiation is a voluntary process in which each person or group (often called a party) has a position that is not fixed, but that does have its limits. A successful negotiation can create a sense of ownership and commitment to shared solutions and shared follow-up actions. This sense of ownership and commitment makes negotiated solutions often more desirable, for example, than legal solutions, where...

Jeffrey Sayer

The most fundamental (question) relates to the definition of the goals and targets for restoration projects. It would seem that definition would be simple, but it is often complex and involves difficult decisions and compromises. Ideally, restoration reproduces the entire system in question, complete in all its aspects genetics, populations, ecosystems, and landscapes. This means not merely replicating the system's composition, structure and functions, but also its dynamics even allowing for...

Invasive Species Introduced Intentionally

In some cases, introduced species can be a significant problem, becoming established in the wild and spreading at the expense of native species and affecting entire ecosystems. Notorious forest examples of these IAS that have negative effects on native biodiversity include various species of Northern Hemisphere pines (Pinus spp.) and Australian acacias (Acacia spp.) in southern Africa, and Melaleuca from South America invading Florida's Everglades National Park. These and many other woody...

Locally but Thinking Globally

Most of the time, the restoration plan is developed at a local scale rather than at a larger scale. Managers should develop macromanagement strategies in order to make current environmental policies sharper. In Europe, the Water Framework Directive is a chance to promote such a large-scale approach. It is, for example, well known that the de-nitrification capacity of riparian units depends on connectivity conditions between the soil, root systems, and groundwater. However, these conditions do...

Madagascar The Challenge of Choosing a Priority Landscape for Restoration

In a country like Madagascar that has lost over 90 percent of its forest, it would seem straight forward to decide where to restore. Nonetheless, given scarce resources and given a difficult socioeconomic context (Madagascar is one of the poorest countries on the planet, and poor people survive largely from slash and burn agriculture), it is necessary to select priority area(s) to begin a large-scale restoration programme. In 2003 WWF brought together a number of stakeholders from government,...

Outline of Tools

Tools for managing and directing natural succession should be used as an imitation of natural processes rather than as a substitute for them. The tools described in the previous chapter focus on influencing natural regeneration. They remain appropriate throughout succession, but here is a list of tools for manipulating existing vegetation Patience Time can be used as a tool. Wait for signs and expression of successional trajectory. Understanding what drives and limits succession will make it...

Lafarge Quarry Restoration in Kenya

Lafarge, based in France, is now the largest quarrying company in the world. The development of its policy toward forest landscape restoration is an example of how small-scale interventions can lead to larger restoration policy initiatives. Lafarge's forest restoration work started with a series of site-based interventions. The former quarry of the Bamburi cement plant near Mombasa in Kenya was mined for 20 years. In the early 1970s, a rehabilitation programme was started to restore the site as...

Livelihoods Analysis

Much of the following information is paraphrased from the Livelihoods Connect Web site358 developed by the U.K. Department for International Development and the Institute of Development Studies. Livelihoods' analysis is a people-centred approach aimed at eliminating poverty. This approach is important for any forest landscape restoration initiative but particularly in those landscapes where agriculture is a major land use after all, it is people who practise farming. Analysis is based on a...

Monitoring

A key benefit of using quantitative spatial data and targets for both biological and socioeconomic variables throughout the planning and implementation process is that it facilitates long-term monitoring as the project proceeds. Remote sensing in particular provides a relatively quick and inexpensive, synoptic, repeat-able view of large-scale changes to land uses and land cover over time within the landscape. Clearly this will have to be paired with reviews of progress toward those biological...