Forest Fires Specialist Species

Many endangered specialist species are highly dependent on forest fires and burned wood. These species typically populate the burned area immediately after the fire, and revert some 5 years after the fire. Some endangered fire-dependent beetle species utilise certain fungi species, which only occur in recently burned wood. Most of the fire-dependent specialist species are capable of spreading long distances, which is necessary because forest fires have occurred randomly in the forest landscape....

Sabah Reconnecting Forest Fragments

Forest along the banks of the Kinabatangan River in the Malaysian state of Sabah, in Borneo, creates an important corridor between coastal mangrove and secondary forests in the highlands. Much of the remaining lowland forest has been converted into oil palm plantations. Substantial parts of the riparian corridor are now protected but these areas have become fragmented and oil palm reaches right to the river bank in places, cutting migration corridors for elephants and other species. The WWF...

Elimination of Invasive Species by Planting Economically Important Native Species

The area of Andresito, in northeast Argentina, has been identified as a key area for the conservation of the Upper Paran Atlantic Forest (Fig. 36.2) remaining forests there can guarantee the connectivity of the great forest masses of Brazil and Argentina.319 In the framework of a project on Forest Landscape Restoration that involves a large number of people and institutions, different restoration methodologies are being investigated.320 A particular problematic issue is the invasion of forests...

Additional Protection Against Mass Movement of Steep Slopes

Each of the previous strategies provides some protection against mass movement. Two additional strategies provide specific protection for slopes susceptible to mass movement.428 1. Steep slopes susceptible to mass movement are most effectively stabilised with trees and shrubs that have strong woody root systems. Significant taproot development below the slip surface greatly increases slope shear strength, which has a strong slope-stabilising influence. 428 Morgan and Rickson, 1995 Whisenant,...

Area de Conservacin Guanacaste Costa Rica

An extensive and innovative landscape-scale restoration and management project has been underway in Guanacaste, northern Costa Rica, since 1985, under the direction of Dan Janzen.361 This 110,000 hectare conservation area began as Santa Rosa National Park, and through the efforts of Janzen and successive, far-sighted Costa Rican governments, was gradually increased to a landscape scale that includes not only TDF but also wet forest and montane cloud forest, as well as 45,000 hectares of...

Reforestation for Productivity and Biodiversity

Monoculture Plantations Using Indigenous Species Monoculture plantations are comparatively easy to establish and manage since all trees mature at the same time. Traditionally many such plantations have used exotic species. The timbers of these species are often of relatively low value. Some indigenous species can have much higher commercial values than fast-growing exotic species. Plantations of higher value timbers may be increasingly valuable in future once natural forests have been...

Forest Plantations and the Role of Remnant Forest

Tree plantations in tropical montane areas can fulfil both conservation and production purposes as part of a restoration strategy. Yet, the choice of what species to plant must be made carefully, and it may be better to invest some time in selecting the appropriate species378 rather than planting whatever is available in the local nursery. Tree species with high growth rates, prolific regeneration, or with any other desirable attributes can be easily identified after a few months of...

Outline of Tools

There are still few specific planning tools designed specifically for restoration. However, many existing conservation planning tools could be adapted for or could include a restora- tion component. For example, Conservation International has developed guidelines for corridors that include reference to restoration to fill gaps in existing forest cover, although with little detail. The reader will find more details on the potential tools step by step in the following sections. They include among...

Sierra de las Minas Guatemala

The Sierra de las Minas in Guatemala contains a biological treasure. At least 885 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles, which amounts to 70 percent of all the species from these groups that are known to exist in Guatemala and neighbouring Belize can be found here. It is also an important tropical gene bank of conifers with 17 distinct endemic evergreen species. The area is thus considered an irreplaceable seed resource for reforestation and agroforestry throughout the tropics....

Use of Diversity Nuclei

The littoral area of southern Brazil, formerly covered by Serra do Mar (Atlantic forest), is now severely deforested (Fig. 36.1). Currently, numerous actions are being carried out to preserve the remaining forests, and to restore the deforested areas.315 Tree cover restoration in the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraquegaba, is being aided by a strategy in which small stands of pioneer species (i.e., generally 1000 to 5000 young trees) are planted in the surrounding, more diverse stands...

Explanation of the Issue

Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are defined as biological resources of plant and animal origin, derived from natural forests, managed forests, plantations, wooded land, and trees outside forests. What distinguishes NTFPs from agricultural products is their origin they come from species of flora and fauna native to the forest systems, and the wild or semidomes-ticated mode of production.270 An indication of the socioeconomic importance of NTFPs is the fact that 80 percent of the population...

Jeff Sayer and Triagung Rooswiadji

Rising majestically from lowland rice paddies to a height of 3726m, Gunung Rinjani dominates the Indonesian Island of Lombok. The upper slopes of the mountain are clothed in cloud forest. The winds coming in off the sea cool as they are funnelled up the slopes of the mountain, moisture condenses onto the vegetation, and as a result the trees are permanently wet and are festooned in epiphytic orchids, lichens, and mosses. These forests are home to rare birds, black ebony leaf monkeys, barking...

General Guidelines on Plantations

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Jakarta, Indonesia. www.cifor.cgiar.org . Contains information on controversial issues regarding plantations such as social relevance, economic aspects, environmental effects. Evans J. 1992. Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. One of the most complete textbooks on plantation forestry for tropical countries. FAO. 2000. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. Main report. http www fao.org forestry fo...

Cultural Keystone Species

In the same way that an ecosystem is dependent on ecological keystone species, an entire culture or society may be dependent on cultural keystone species (CKS).298 These species are by definition central to the survival and essence of a culture for a number of reasons, including their link to the culture's myths, rituals, religion, etc. Identifying these CKS and using them to promote forest protection and restoration in a landscape can be a valuable contribution to the restoration of forest...

NTFPs and Forest Certification

Certification is a policy tool that attempts to foster responsible resource stewardship through the labelling of consumer products. Even if forest certification has tended to focus on timber products, opportunities exist to promote sound ecological and social practices in NTFPs' management to support restoration in degraded forest landscapes of outstanding biodiversity and increase local communities' revenues and trade opportunities through this market tool. The certification systems that are...

Forest Landscape Restoration in Context

Nigel Dudley, Stephanie Mansourian, and Daniel Vallauri Forest landscape restoration is grounded in ecoregion conservation and is defined as a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes. Such an approach helps achieve a balance between human needs and those of biodiversity by restoring a range of forest functions within a landscape and accepting the trade-offs that result. People have been actively using forests...

Plan For Restoration

Protection measures and restoration interventions should be adequately planned. Drawing up a medium-term management rest oration plan may be necessary. A management plan requires information such as an inventory of the standing stock and its condition, including composition, size, and stem quality. An assessment of the regeneration (seedlings, saplings, and advanced growth of marketable or preferred timber and nontimber species) should be considered. Information on nontimber forest products...

Contributors List

Manager, Forest Landscape Restoration Thomas F. Alnutt Senior Conservation Specialist Conservation Science Programme World Wildlife Fund-US, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20037 E-mail tom.allnutt gmail.com CIFOR Regional Office for Latin America c o EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental Trav. Dr. Eneas Pinheiro s n CEP 66.010-080 Belem Para, Brazil E-mail e.almeida cgiar.org James Aronson Restoration Ecology Group CEFE (CNRS-U.M.R. 5175) 1919, Route de Mende F-34293 Montpellier, France E-mail james.aronson...

Rehabilitation of Log Landings and Skid Trails446

Overlogging and forest fires, or combinations of the two, have created millions of hectares of medium to heavily disturbed forests in many parts of Southeast Asia. One of the main technical approaches for restoration in these forests has been the establishment of enrichment plantings, either in lines or in gaps. Line planting has been used if the surrounding trees are small (< 10m). The gap planting method is especially suitable when the surrounding trees are taller (> 10m). In practice,...

Examples

Fire Management in Jarrah Forest Restoration on Bauxite Mines in Western Australia460 Alcoa World Alumina Australia commenced mining bauxite in the Jarrah forest of western Australia in 1963. Since then, 10,600 hectares have been rehabilitated. The climate is typically Mediterranean with winter rainfall and summer drought. Early restoration efforts were based on imported species of pine and eucalypt from Eastern Australia. This exotic vegetation is very resilient to natural forms of...

Reasons to Restore

It must be recognised, however, that what remains of TDF today are not especially attractive to most people, and only rarely do they capture the attention of tourists. Their low annual productivity makes TDF of minor interest to foresters or farmers. Therefore, lobbying for their conservation, and, more so still, their restoration, is problematic. However, biodiversity criteria alone more than justify the need for greater efforts, especially at the landscape and ecoregional scales. What's more,...