Outline of Tools

There are still few specific planning tools designed specifically for restoration. However, many existing conservation planning tools could be adapted for or could include a restora- tion component. For example, Conservation International has developed guidelines for corridors that include reference to restoration to fill gaps in existing forest cover, although with little detail. The reader will find more details on the potential tools step by step in the following sections. They include among...

Sierra de las Minas Guatemala

The Sierra de las Minas in Guatemala contains a biological treasure. At least 885 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles, which amounts to 70 percent of all the species from these groups that are known to exist in Guatemala and neighbouring Belize can be found here. It is also an important tropical gene bank of conifers with 17 distinct endemic evergreen species. The area is thus considered an irreplaceable seed resource for reforestation and agroforestry throughout the tropics....

Use of Diversity Nuclei

The littoral area of southern Brazil, formerly covered by Serra do Mar (Atlantic forest), is now severely deforested (Fig. 36.1). Currently, numerous actions are being carried out to preserve the remaining forests, and to restore the deforested areas.315 Tree cover restoration in the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraquegaba, is being aided by a strategy in which small stands of pioneer species (i.e., generally 1000 to 5000 young trees) are planted in the surrounding, more diverse stands...

Explanation of the Issue

Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are defined as biological resources of plant and animal origin, derived from natural forests, managed forests, plantations, wooded land, and trees outside forests. What distinguishes NTFPs from agricultural products is their origin they come from species of flora and fauna native to the forest systems, and the wild or semidomes-ticated mode of production.270 An indication of the socioeconomic importance of NTFPs is the fact that 80 percent of the population...

Jeff Sayer and Triagung Rooswiadji

Rising majestically from lowland rice paddies to a height of 3726m, Gunung Rinjani dominates the Indonesian Island of Lombok. The upper slopes of the mountain are clothed in cloud forest. The winds coming in off the sea cool as they are funnelled up the slopes of the mountain, moisture condenses onto the vegetation, and as a result the trees are permanently wet and are festooned in epiphytic orchids, lichens, and mosses. These forests are home to rare birds, black ebony leaf monkeys, barking...

General Guidelines on Plantations

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Jakarta, Indonesia. www.cifor.cgiar.org . Contains information on controversial issues regarding plantations such as social relevance, economic aspects, environmental effects. Evans J. 1992. Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. One of the most complete textbooks on plantation forestry for tropical countries. FAO. 2000. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. Main report. http www fao.org forestry fo...

Main Characteristics of Tropical Montane Forests

Drastic changes in elevation, precipitation, and direction of prevailing winds across small alti-tudinal ranges generate high levels of species' and habitat diversity in tropical montane forests. Also, because of their cool ambient temperatures, tropical montane forests serve as refugia of relict tree populations that are more typical of temperate latitudes. Moreover, tropical montane forests are home to unique vertebrate fauna for example, mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in...

Cultural Keystone Species

In the same way that an ecosystem is dependent on ecological keystone species, an entire culture or society may be dependent on cultural keystone species (CKS).298 These species are by definition central to the survival and essence of a culture for a number of reasons, including their link to the culture's myths, rituals, religion, etc. Identifying these CKS and using them to promote forest protection and restoration in a landscape can be a valuable contribution to the restoration of forest...

NTFPs and Forest Certification

Certification is a policy tool that attempts to foster responsible resource stewardship through the labelling of consumer products. Even if forest certification has tended to focus on timber products, opportunities exist to promote sound ecological and social practices in NTFPs' management to support restoration in degraded forest landscapes of outstanding biodiversity and increase local communities' revenues and trade opportunities through this market tool. The certification systems that are...

Forest Landscape Restoration in Context

Nigel Dudley, Stephanie Mansourian, and Daniel Vallauri Forest landscape restoration is grounded in ecoregion conservation and is defined as a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes. Such an approach helps achieve a balance between human needs and those of biodiversity by restoring a range of forest functions within a landscape and accepting the trade-offs that result. People have been actively using forests...

Plan For Restoration

Protection measures and restoration interventions should be adequately planned. Drawing up a medium-term management rest oration plan may be necessary. A management plan requires information such as an inventory of the standing stock and its condition, including composition, size, and stem quality. An assessment of the regeneration (seedlings, saplings, and advanced growth of marketable or preferred timber and nontimber species) should be considered. Information on nontimber forest products...

Contributors List

Manager, Forest Landscape Restoration Thomas F. Alnutt Senior Conservation Specialist Conservation Science Programme World Wildlife Fund-US, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20037 E-mail tom.allnutt gmail.com CIFOR Regional Office for Latin America c o EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental Trav. Dr. Eneas Pinheiro s n CEP 66.010-080 Belem Para, Brazil E-mail e.almeida cgiar.org James Aronson Restoration Ecology Group CEFE (CNRS-U.M.R. 5175) 1919, Route de Mende F-34293 Montpellier, France E-mail james.aronson...

Rehabilitation of Log Landings and Skid Trails446

Overlogging and forest fires, or combinations of the two, have created millions of hectares of medium to heavily disturbed forests in many parts of Southeast Asia. One of the main technical approaches for restoration in these forests has been the establishment of enrichment plantings, either in lines or in gaps. Line planting has been used if the surrounding trees are small (< 10m). The gap planting method is especially suitable when the surrounding trees are taller (> 10m). In practice,...

Examples

Fire Management in Jarrah Forest Restoration on Bauxite Mines in Western Australia460 Alcoa World Alumina Australia commenced mining bauxite in the Jarrah forest of western Australia in 1963. Since then, 10,600 hectares have been rehabilitated. The climate is typically Mediterranean with winter rainfall and summer drought. Early restoration efforts were based on imported species of pine and eucalypt from Eastern Australia. This exotic vegetation is very resilient to natural forms of...

Reasons to Restore

It must be recognised, however, that what remains of TDF today are not especially attractive to most people, and only rarely do they capture the attention of tourists. Their low annual productivity makes TDF of minor interest to foresters or farmers. Therefore, lobbying for their conservation, and, more so still, their restoration, is problematic. However, biodiversity criteria alone more than justify the need for greater efforts, especially at the landscape and ecoregional scales. What's more,...