Noaa

noctuid moths 128

Normalized Difference Temperature

Index 162-164 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index 112, 161, 164-165, 168-169

North America. See also Canada; United States global warming effects 281, 286, 289

precipitation changes 271-272 North Atlantic Oscillation 266 nutrition for frost control 60 Nysius vinitor 128

ocean-atmosphere models. See general circulation models opportunity cropping 245 Orange (NSW) 204, 205t orbiviruses 140-141 organic matter, soil temperature and 44 Ostertagia spp. 137 ostertagiosis 136 overgrazing 120 oxygen 22. See also ozone ozone absorbs solar radiation 22 accumulation of 264 tropospheric 268-269

Pacific Ocean 265, 271 palisade parenchyma 26 Palmer Drought Severity Index 101-102, 101t pan methods for measuring evaporation

79-81, 84 panchromatic images 153 PAR 36-38 paralysis tick 143 parasitic wasps 124 partial root-zone irrigation 90 passive instruments 151 passive protection against frost 56 pasture simulation models 111 path radiance 148

PDSI 101-102, 101t peaches, temperature fluctuations and 65

peanuts air temperature and 49 chilling injury 54 solar radiation and 39-40 pears, freezing injuries 54 pecan aphids 124 Pectinophera gossypiella 134-135 Penman method for measuring evaporation 6, 83 Penman-Monteith method 82-83 percent of normal precipitation 97-99 perennial plants 245, 253 personalities of agricultural producers 257

Perthida glyphopa 127 pests and diseases climatological management 123-144

global warming effects 278f, 284 insects 64, 123-126 management of 10, 245-246 modelling in management 185 weather effects on 212 petrochemicals, reduce water loss 88 Philippines, drought assessment in 99 photoelements, spectral scattering 36f photoperiodicity 26, 65, 129 photosphere 13-15 photosynthesis optimal leaf angle 32f, 33f photon flux density 36 radiation levels for 30, 36-38 temperature effects 49-50, 50f, 51t phototropism 29 physiology of plants 183 Piche evaporimeters 80 pine forests 38f pink bollworm 134 plages 15 Planck's Law 17

plant canopy 30-36, 119-120. See also leaves plant cultivars 58, 241 plant growth delay due to chilling 54 optimal heights of 32 soil temperature and 45-46 solar radiation and 13-41 thermoperiodism 64

plant simulation models. See simulation models plant spectra. See vegetation PMP 238-240, 257 polar stratospheric clouds 268 population dynamics models 67 potatoes foliar disease management 172 soil temperature and 45 temperature effects on 49f thermoperiodism 65 potential evapotranspiration 77-78 PPFD 36 PRD 90

precipitation. See rainfall; snow preliminary models 181 private agroclimatological services

216-217 problem solving cycle 260f ProFarmer magazine 216 property management planning

238-240, 257 PSCs 268

Psoregates ovis 144 publicity during drought 118

Queensland agricultural forecasts 215-216 bluetongue infection in 140-141 bushfire monitoring 165 Department of Primary Industry 211

drought monitoring 107-108 remote sensing in 168-169 Queensland fruit fly 135-136 QuickBird satellite 154 quiescence due to heat 52

radar sensing 149-150 radiation efficiency of use 38-41 energy budget 18-25, 20-23, 21f, 21t laws of 16-18 radiation frost 55 radiometers 151

rainfall analysis of 109-110, 113 chances of 195t, 197t effective use of 70-76 effects on aphids 131 effects on cotton bollworms 134 effects on locusts 134 effects on pest insects 126, 127 effects on Queensland fruit fly 135 effects on sheep lice 142 effects on sheep parasites 137-138 effects on ticks 142-143 efficient use of 242-252 estimating probability of 249 long-term changes in 271-272 measurement of 71 in property planning 238 reduction during drought 97-99 thresholds for 97-98, 98t rainy seasons 71-73, 99, 138-139 rangelands forecasts used in 219-220 livestock effects of global warming

288-289 remote monitoring of 164-165 Rayleigh scattering 22 real-time climate information 221 red edge 157

red light, effect on plants 29 reflected radiation 149 reflection from leaves 26-30, 27f, 28t Regional Review (NSW) 215 regression models 180-181. See also statistical methods remote sensing 7, 145-177

crop water use estimates from 83 drought monitoring with 112-115 research into agrometeorology 6, 9, 221

research into drought 119 reservoirs, water loss reduction 91-93 resilience of agricultural production

237, 239, 252-254 resources inventories 116-117, 120 respiration, temperature effects 48,

49f, 52 reversing layer 14 Rhopalosiphum padi 131 RI 100

rice crops air temperature and 48 chilling injury 53-54 conversion coefficient of 41 heat stress on 52 irrigation requirements 75 soil temperature and germination 44 windborne insect pests 128 Ricinus communis, conversion coefficient 41 Rift Valley fever 140 Ritchie method of measuring evapotranspiration 81 Riverwatch service (NSW) 215 roots, temperature of 44, 46 Roseworthy (SA) 243f, 244f roundworms 137 Royal Melbourne Institute of

Technology 91 RUE (radiation use efficiency) 38-41 runoff 238, 279-280 Rural Land Protection Boards (NSW) 106

Sahelian region (Africa) 119-120 salinity 121, 245 sap feeders 126-127 Sarcoptes scabei 143-144 sarcoptic mange 143-144 satellites for remote sensing 7, 154, 155t, 156t orbits for 158-159 solar radiation estimates from 171 scaling of models 7 scattering of EMR 147, 150 Schistocerca gregaria 128 schools, training in 11 science and policy integration during drought 118 Scolytus laevis 124 screening. See also windbreaks for frost control 59 to reflect solar radiation 39-40 sustainable 253 sea levels, long-term rise in 276 sea-surface temperature 185, 265-266 seasonal events effects on pest insects 126 modelling 186

seasonal events (continued)

monsoon conditions 71-73, 99 rainy seasons 70-71 temperature fluctuations 65 seasonal forecasts 210-211, 222 economic policy and 4 estimating probabilities 250f of frosts 62-64 usefulness of 217-218 seepage from reservoirs 92-93 selective scattering of radiation 22 sensor designs 148-152, 156t sequence analysis models 183 shading. See screening sheep blowfly strike 139 lice on 141-142 parasites of 137-138, 144 wool production 220 shelter. See screening short-term forecasts 210 of frosts 64

water use efficiency and 87 shortwave radiation 20-23, 24t simulation models 6-7 animal models 179 crop water use 82-83 drought monitoring with 111-114 plant models 179-180, 183 simulated annealing 164 SISP 160

site selection, for frost control 58

Sitobion avenae 131

sky radiation 35f

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